Silver Largitio Dish with the Name of Licinius

Silver Largitio Dish with the Name of Licinius

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ABBREVIATIONS. I. Eusebius, Vita Constantini: Editions and Translations. Heikel . I. A. Heikel, Eusebius Werke I. UÈber das Leben Constantins. Life of Constantine (Vita Constantini) is a panegyric written in honor of Constantine the Great by Eusebius of Caeserea in the 4th century AD. It was never. A researcher from a Canadian film company wrote to me, saying they were doing a documentary on Constantine, would be in Rome and was.

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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Constantine is cast in the role of Moses, but is projected — to fix meaning. If religious objects are often everyday constahtini transformed — how do they become holy? The standard was divinely inspired and its material form was underlying idea for its creation is sacred. In this case, considered, by Eusebius, as a testament to this fact. Today we can approach these among ancient historians, such debates would be the subject of another interpretations — social canvases — as a way to gain access paper.

Literature on holy object recast as a social canvas. For a comprehensive bibliography on the Vita, see Cameron and Hall For more recent vvita, see M. Gager, Moses in Greco- colloquium devoted to Objects in Motion. Old Testament, Grand Rapids, Wm. Jacobs, Konstantins, Berlin, Akademie Verlag,rev. For a recent Oxford University Press, A primer in the social history would continue to be Christians.

Essays in means certain that the extant imperial biography credited to Eusebius Honour of Henry Chadwick, ed. Williams, Cambridge, has indeed been preserved in the version that remains today.

Eusebius provided an early Christian model for hagiographies. Anthropologists gather data and construct theories I. The instrumental great deal to contribute to our understanding of nature of usable or functional material culture allows it to miraculous Late Antique visual culture. For social context euseius like a curious museum object without a example, in addition to a ceremonial vessel, or a death label explaining what it originally did and for whom.

Its shroud, consider a vicar entrusted with the power of his original significance is missing or unknown. It is that office and thus able to officiate at a wedding as an agent original meaning, or at least glimpses of it, which eudebius of the state.

He, eussbius these other agents, is by definition brought into focus offers a clearer picture of how Late serving a purpose.

As instruments with a specific social context, such objects are used by an agent in order to Before addressing theoretical implications concerning perform an action or a purpose. Textual accounts of viewing key objects of visual culture — those which Late Antique authors highlighted as significant, or which several Late Antique authors 10 In his introduction to The Social Life of Objects, A.

Appadurai begins commented on, implicitly underscoring their import — by making it clear that the focus of his introduction to the volume is created a history for those objects. Many of the consumption, Appadurai3. Commodities in Cultural any, might correspond to textual descriptions. Appadurai, Cambridge, University of Cambridge Regardless, what the visual descriptions provide us with Press, Like a tabula Latin term signa militaria.

Life of Constantine – Wikipedia

Eusebiua standard, signa militaria and labarum will, therefore, euseblus used interchangeably. For Late Antique 7 In contrast to paintings, for example, which as a whole are without an representations of the chi-rho, see a silver largitio dish in the Hermitage essential interactive element. On the subject-object relation, see B. Elsner, Art and the Roman Viewer: Heffernan, and attendants in a euseibus from San Vitale, Ravenna.

The of the pictorial space and held by a guardsman. Webb, Ekphrasis, Imagination and in the place occupied by Victory on the silver largitio dish, M. Cambridge University Press,plate IV. Then Christ visited Constantine in a Persecution literally drove Christians underground. In his 15 VC I.

The first was a mass vision which reportedly took terminology in LC, e. For additional Roman period battle when Constantine was visited in a dream. For coins with the Christian standard, see for example, Constantinople no. According to the accounts of Lactantius and Eusebius, Bruun, ed.

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According to Lactantius, [6] a Latin historian of North African origins saved from poverty by the Emperor Constantine the Great (r. 306–337), who made him tutor to his son Crispus, Constantine had dreamt of being ordered to put a "heavenly divine symbol" (Latin: coeleste signum dei) on the shields of his soldiers. The description of the actual symbol chosen by Emperor Constantine the next morning, as reported by Lactantius, is not very clear: it closely resembles a Tau-Rho or a staurogram ( ), a similar Christian symbol. That very day Constantine's army fought the forces of Maxentius and won the Battle of the Milvian Bridge (312), outside Rome.

Eusebius of Caesarea (died in 339) gave two different accounts of the events. In his church history, written shortly after the battle, when Eusebius hadn't yet had contact with Constantine, he doesn't mention any dream or vision, but compares the defeat of Maxentius (drowned in the Tiber) to that of the biblical pharaoh and credits Constantine's victory to divine protection.

In a memoir of the Roman emperor that Eusebius wrote after Constantine's death (On the Life of Constantine, circa 337–339), a miraculous appearance is said to have come in Gaul long before the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. In this later version, the Roman emperor had been pondering the misfortunes that befell commanders who invoked the help of many different gods, and decided to seek divine aid in the forthcoming battle from the One God. At noon, Constantine saw a cross of light imposed over the sun. Attached to it, in Greek characters, was the saying "Τούτῳ Νίκα!" (“In this sign you will conquer!”). [7] Not only Constantine, but the whole army saw the miracle. That night, Christ appeared to the Roman emperor in a dream and told him to make a replica of the sign he had seen in the sky, which would be a sure defence in battle.

Eusebius wrote in the Vita that Constantine himself had told him this story "and confirmed it with oaths" late in life "when I was deemed worthy of his acquaintance and company." "Indeed", says Eusebius, "had anyone else told this story, it would not have been easy to accept it."

Eusebius also left a description of the labarum, the military standard which incorporated the Chi-Rho sign, used by Emperor Constantine in his later wars against Licinius. [8]

Late antiquity Edit

An early visual representation of the connection between the Crucifixion of Jesus and his resurrection, seen in the 4th century sarcophagus of Domitilla in Rome, the use of a wreath around the Chi-Rho symbolizes the victory of the Resurrection over death. [11]

After Constantine, the Chi-Rho became part of the official imperial insignia. Archaeologists have uncovered evidence demonstrating that the Chi-Rho was emblazoned on the helmets of some Late Roman soldiers. Coins and medallions minted during Emperor Constantine's reign also bore the Chi-Rho. By the year 350, the Chi-Rho began to be used on Christian sarcophagi and frescoes. The usurper Magnentius appears to have been the first to use the Chi-Rho monogram flanked by Alpha and Omega, on the reverse of some coins minted in 353. [12] In Roman Britannia, a tesselated mosaic pavement was uncovered at Hinton St. Mary, Dorset, in 1963. On stylistic grounds, it is dated to the 4th century its central roundel represents a beardless male head and bust draped in a pallium in front of the Chi-Rho symbol, flanked by pomegranates, symbols of eternal life. Another Romano-British Chi-Rho, in fresco, was found at the site of a villa at Lullingstone (illustrated). The symbol was also found on Late Roman Christian signet rings in Britain. [13]

In 2020, archaeologists discovered in Vindolanda in northern England a 5th-century chalice covered in religious iconography, including the Chi-Rho. [14] [15]

Insular Gospel books Edit

In Insular Gospel books, the beginning of Matthew 1:18, at the end of his account of the genealogy of Christ and introducing his account of the life, so representing the moment of the Incarnation of Christ, was usually marked with a heavily decorated page, where the letters of the first word "Christi" are abbreviated and written in Greek as "XPI", and often almost submerged by decoration. [16] Though the letters are written one after the other and the "X" and "P" not combined in a monogram, these are known as Chi-Rho pages.

Famous examples are in the Book of Kells and Book of Lindisfarne. [17] The "X" was regarded as the crux decussata, a symbol of the cross this idea is found in the works of Isidore of Seville and other patristic and Early Medieval writers. [18] The Book of Kells has a second Chi-Rho abbreviation on folio 124 in the account of the Crucifixion of Christ, [19] and in some manuscripts the Chi-Rho occurs at the beginning of Matthew rather than mid-text at Matthew 1:18. In some other works like the Carolingian Godescalc Evangelistary, "XPS" in sequential letters, representing "Christus" is given a prominent place. [20]

36. The German Fighter That Caught the British Off Guard

When the Luftwaffe&rsquos Focke-Wulf Fw 190 first made its operational debut in France in August, 1941, it came as an unpleasant surprise to the RAF. Except for turn radius, the new German fighter was superior in just about every way to the RAF&rsquos main frontline fighter at the time, the Spitfire Mk. V. Especially when dogfighting at low and medium altitudes.

Fw 190As in France. Bundesarchiv Bild

The Fw 190 seized aerial superiority from the RAF for nearly a year, until the introduction of the vastly improved Spitfire Mk. IX in July, 1942, restored parity. In the meantime, the British were desperate to get their hands on an Fw 190 to examine what made it tick, and figure out how to best counter it. Aware of that, the Luftwaffe prohibited its Fw 190 pilots from flying over Britain, lest one get shot down and give the British the opportunity to inspect the wreckage. Then one of the biggest oops moments by a WWII pilot delivered an Fw 190 in pristine condition straight into the RAF&rsquos hands.


Lampreys live mostly in coastal and fresh waters and are found in most temperate regions. Some species (e.g. Geotria australis, Petromyzon marinus, and Entosphenus tridentatus) travel significant distances in the open ocean, [10] as evidenced by their lack of reproductive isolation between populations. Other species are found in land-locked lakes. Their larvae (ammocoetes) have a low tolerance for high water temperatures, which may explain why they are not distributed in the tropics.

Lamprey distribution may be adversely affected by overfishing and pollution. In Britain, at the time of the Conquest, lampreys were found as far upstream in the River Thames as Petersham [ citation needed ] . The reduction of pollution in the Thames and River Wear has led to recent sightings in London and Chester-le-Street. [11] [12]

Distribution of lampreys may also be adversely affected by dams and other construction projects due to disruption of migration routes and obstruction of access to spawning grounds. Conversely, the construction of artificial channels has exposed new habitats for colonisation, notably in North America where sea lampreys have become a significant introduced pest in the Great Lakes. Active control programs to control lampreys are undergoing modifications due to concerns of drinking water quality in some areas. [13]

Basic external anatomy of a lamprey

Anatomy Edit

Adults superficially resemble eels in that they have scaleless, elongated bodies, and can range from 13 to 100 cm (5 to 40 inches) in length. Lacking paired fins, adult lampreys have large eyes, one nostril on the top of the head, and seven gill pores on each side of the head.

The brain of the lamprey is divided into the forebrain, diencephalon, midbrain, cerebellum, and medulla. [14]

The heart of the lamprey is anterior to the intestines. It contains the sinus, one atrium, and one ventricle protected by the pericardial cartilages. [14]

The pineal gland, a photosensitive organ regulating melatonin production by capturing light signals through the photoreceptor cell converting them into intercellular signals of the lamprey is located in the midline of its body, for lamprey, the pineal eye is accompanied by the parapineal organ. [15]

The buccal cavity, anterior to the gonads, are responsible to attaching, through suction, to either a stone or their prey. This then allows the tongue to be able to have contact with the stone to rasp algae, or tear at the flesh of their prey to be able to drink their blood. [16]

The pharynx is subdivided the ventral part forming a respiratory tube that is isolated from the mouth by a valve called the velum. This is an adaptation to how the adults feed, by preventing the prey's body fluids from escaping through the gills or interfering with gas exchange, which takes place by pumping water in and out of the gill pouches instead of taking it in through the mouth.

One of the key physical components to the lamprey are the intestines, which are located ventral to the notochord. Intestines aid in osmoregulation by intaking water from its environment and desalinating the water they intake to an iso-osmotic state with respect to blood, and are also responsible for digestion. [17]

Near the gills are the eyes, which are poorly developed and buried under skin in the larvae. The eyes consummate their development during metamorphosis, and are covered by a thin and transparent layer of skin that becomes opaque in preservatives. [18]

Morphology Edit

The unique morphological characteristics of lampreys, such as their cartilaginous skeleton shown to the right, suggest they are the sister taxon (see cladistics) of all living jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes). They are usually considered the most basal group of the Vertebrata. Instead of true vertebrae, they have a series of cartilaginous structures called arcualia arranged above the notochord. Hagfish, which resemble lampreys, have traditionally been considered the sister taxon of the true vertebrates (lampreys and gnathostomes) [19] but DNA evidence suggests that they are in fact the sister taxon of lampreys. [20]

Studies have shown that lampreys are amongst the most energy-efficient swimmers. Their swimming movements generate low-pressure zones around the body, which pull rather than push their bodies through the water. [21]

Research on sea lampreys has revealed that sexually mature males use a specialized heat-producing tissue in the form of a ridge of fat cells near the anterior dorsal fin to stimulate females. After having attracted a female with pheromones, the heat detected by the female through body contact will encourage spawning. [22]

Due to certain peculiarities in their adaptive immune system, the study of lampreys provides valuable insight into the evolution of vertebrate adaptive immunity. Generated from a somatic recombination of leucine-rich repeat gene segments, lamprey leukocytes express surface variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs). [23] This convergently evolved characteristic allows them to have lymphocytes that work as the T cells and B cells present in higher vertebrates immune system. [24]

Northern lampreys (Petromyzontidae) have the highest number of chromosomes (164–174) among vertebrates. [25]

Pouched lamprey (Geotria australis) larvae also have a very high tolerance for free iron in their bodies, and have well-developed biochemical systems for detoxification of the large quantities of these metal ions. [26]

Lampreys are the only extant vertebrate to have four eyes. [27] Most lampreys have two additional parietal eyes: a pineal and parapineal one (the exception is members of Mordacia). [28]

Adaptations Edit

Different species of lamprey have many shared physical characteristics. However, the same anatomical structure can serve different functions in the lamprey depending on whether or not it is carnivorous. For example, non-carnivorous species use their teeth to scrape algae from rocks for food, [29] rather than drilling into the flesh of hosts. The mouth and suction capabilities of the lamprey not only allow it to cling to a fish as a parasite, [30] but provide it with limited climbing ability so that it can travel upstream and up ramps or rocks to breed. [31] [30] This ability has been studied in an attempt to better understand how lampreys battle the current and move forward despite only being able to hold onto the rock at a single point. [31] Some scientists are also hoping to design ramps [31] that will optimize the lamprey’s climbing ability, as lampreys are valued as food in the Northwest and need to be able to get upstream to reproduce. [30]

The last common ancestor of lampreys appears to have been specialized to feed on the blood and body fluids of other fish after metamorphosis. [32] They attach their mouthparts to the target animal's body, then use three horny plates (laminae) on the tip of their piston-like tongue, one transversely and two longitudinally placed, to scrape through surface tissues until they reach body fluids. [33] The teeth on their oral disc are primarily used to help the animal attach itself to its prey. [34] Made of keratin and other proteins, lamprey teeth have a hollow core to give room for replacement teeth growing under the old ones. [35] Some of the original blood-feeding forms have evolved into species that feed on both blood and flesh, and some who have become specialized to eat flesh and may even invade the internal organs of the host. Tissue feeders can also involve the teeth on the oral disc in the excision of tissue. [36] As a result, the flesh-feeders have smaller buccal glands as they do not require to produce anticoagulant continuously and mechanisms for preventing solid material entering the branchial pouches, which could otherwise potentially clog the gills. [37] A study of the stomach content of some lampreys has shown the remains of intestines, fins and vertebrae from their prey. [38] Although attacks on humans do occur, [39] they will generally not attack humans unless starved. [40] [19]

Carnivorous forms have given rise to the non-carnivorous species that feed on algae, [41] and "giant" individuals amongst the otherwise small American brook lamprey have occasionally been observed, leading to the hypothesis that sometimes individual members of non-carnivorous forms return to the carnivorous lifestyle of their ancestors. [42]

Another important lamprey adaptation is its camouflage. Similarly to many other aquatic species, most lampreys have a dark-colored back, which enables them to blend in with the ground below when seen from above by a predator. Their light-colored undersides allow them to blend in with the bright air and water above them if a predator sees them from below.

Lamprey coloration can also vary according to the region and specific environment in which the species is found. Some species can be distinguished by their unique markings – for example, Geotria australis individuals display two bluish stripes running the length of its body as an adult. [43] These markings can also sometimes be used to determine what stage of the life cycle the lamprey is in G. australis individuals lose these stripes when they approach the reproductive phase and begin to travel upstream. [43] Another example is Petromyzon marinus, which shifts to more of an orange color as it reaches the reproductive stage in its life cycle.

Lifecycle Edit

The adults spawn in nests of sand, gravel and pebbles in clear streams, and after hatching from the eggs, young larvae—called ammocoetes—will drift downstream with the current till they reach soft and fine sediment in silt beds, where they will burrow in silt, mud and detritus, taking up an existence as filter feeders, collecting detritus, algae, and microorganisms. [44] The eyes of the larvae are underdeveloped, but are capable of discriminating changes in illuminance. [45] Ammocoetes can grow from 3–4 inches (8–10 cm) to about 8 inches (20 cm). [46] [47] Many species change color during a diurnal cycle, becoming dark at day and pale at night. [48] The skin also has photoreceptors, light sensitive cells, most of them concentrated in the tail, which helps them to stay buried. [49] Lampreys may spend up to eight years as ammocoetes, [50] while species such as the Arctic lamprey may only spend one to two years as larvae, [51] prior to undergoing a metamorphosis which generally lasts 3–4 months, but can vary between species. [52] While metamorphosing, they do not eat. [53]

The rate of water moving across the ammocoetes' feeding apparatus is the lowest recorded in any suspension feeding animal, and they therefore require water rich in nutrients to fulfill their nutritional needs. While the majority of (invertebrate) suspension feeders thrive in waters containing under 1 mg suspended organic solids per litre (<1 mg/l), ammocoetes demand minimum 4 mg/l, with concentrations in their habitats having been measured up to 40 mg/l. [54]

During metamorphosis the lamprey loses both the gallbladder and the biliary tract, [55] and the endostyle turns into a thyroid gland. [56]

Some species, including those that are not carnivorous and do not feed even following metamorphosis, [53] live in freshwater for their entire lifecycle, spawning and dying shortly after metamorphosing. [57] In contrast, many species are anadromous and migrate to the sea, [53] beginning to prey on other animals while still swimming downstream after their metamorphosis provides them with eyes, teeth, and a sucking mouth. [58] [57] Those that are anadromous are carnivorous, feeding on fishes or marine mammals. [10] [59] [60]

Anadromous lampreys spend up to four years in the sea before migrating back to freshwater, where they spawn. Adults create nests (called redds) by moving rocks, and females release thousands of eggs, sometimes up to 100,000. [57] The male, intertwined with the female, fertilizes the eggs simultaneously. Being semelparous, both adults die after the eggs are fertilized. [61]

Taxonomists place lampreys and hagfish in the subphylum Vertebrata of the phylum Chordata, which also includes the invertebrate subphyla Tunicata (sea-squirts) and the fish-like Cephalochordata (lancelets or Amphioxus). Recent molecular and morphological phylogenetic studies place lampreys and hagfish in the superclass Agnatha or Agnathostomata (both meaning without jaws). The other vertebrate superclass is Gnathostomata (jawed mouths) and includes the classes Chondrichthyes (sharks), Osteichthyes (bony fishes), Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, and Mammalia.

Some researchers have classified lampreys as the sole surviving representatives of the Linnean class Cephalaspidomorphi. [62] Cephalaspidomorpha is sometimes given as a subclass of the Cephalaspidomorphi. Fossil evidence now suggests lampreys and cephalaspids acquired their shared characters by convergent evolution. [63] [64] As such, many newer works, such as the fourth edition of Fishes of the World, classify lampreys in a separate group called Hyperoartia or Petromyzontida, [62] but whether this is actually a clade is disputed. Namely, it has been proposed that the non-lamprey "Hyperoartia" are in fact closer to the jawed vertebrates.

The debate about their systematics notwithstanding, lampreys constitute a single order Petromyzontiformes. Sometimes still seen is the alternative spelling "Petromyzoniformes", based on the argument that the type genus is Petromyzon and not "Petromyzonta" or similar. Throughout most of the 20th century, both names were used indiscriminately, even by the same author in subsequent publications. In the mid-1970s, the ICZN was called upon to fix one name or the other, and after much debate had to resolve the issue by voting. Thus, in 1980, the spelling with a "t" won out, and in 1981, it became official that all higher-level taxa based on Petromyzon have to start with "Petromyzont-".

The following taxonomy is based upon the treatment by FishBase as of April 2012 with phylogeny compiled by Mikko Haaramo. [65] Within the order are 10 living genera in three families. Two of the latter are monotypic at genus level today, and in one of them a single living species is recognized (though it may be a cryptic species complex): [66]

Geotria Gray 1851 (pouched lamprey)

Mordacia Gray 1853 (southern topeyed lampreys)

  • Geotria australisGray 1851 (Pouched lamprey)
  • Mordacia lapicida(Gray 1851) (Chilean lamprey)
  • Mordacia mordax(Richardson 1846) (Australian lamprey)
  • Mordacia praecoxPotter 1968 (Non-parasitic/Australian brook lamprey)
  • Petromyzon marinusLinnaeus 1758 (Sea lamprey)
  • Ichthyomyzon bdellium(Jordan 1885) (Ohio lamprey)
  • Ichthyomyzon castaneusGirard 1858 (Chestnut lamprey)
  • Ichthyomyzon fossorReighard & Cummins 1916 (Northern brook lamprey)
  • Ichthyomyzon gageiHubbs & Trautman 1937 (Southern brook lamprey)
  • Ichthyomyzon greeleyiHubbs & Trautman 1937 (Mountain brook lamprey)
  • Ichthyomyzon unicuspisHubbs & Trautman 1937 (Silver lamprey)
  • Caspiomyzon wagneri(Kessler 1870) Berg 1906 (Caspian lamprey)
  • Caspiomyzon graecus(Renaud & Economidis 2010) (Ionian brook lamprey)
  • Caspiomyzon hellenicus(Vladykov et al. 1982) (Greek lamprey)
  • Tetrapleurodon geminisÁlvarez 1964 (Mexican brook lamprey)
  • Tetrapleurodon spadiceus(Bean 1887) (Mexican lamprey)
  • Entosphenus follettiVladykov & Kott 1976 (Northern California brook lamprey)
  • Entosphenus lethophagus(Hubbs 1971) (Pit-Klamath brook lamprey)
  • Entosphenus macrostomus(Beamish 1982) (Lake lamprey)
  • Entosphenus minimus(Bond & Kan 1973) (Miller Lake lamprey)
  • Entosphenus similisVladykov & Kott 1979 (Klamath river lamprey)
  • Entosphenus tridentatus(Richardson 1836) (Pacific lamprey)
  • Lethenteron alaskenseVladykov & Kott 1978 (Alaskan brook lamprey)
  • Lethenteron appendix(DeKay 1842) (American brook lamprey)
  • Lethenteron camtschaticum(Tilesius 1811) (Arctic lamprey)
  • Lethenteron kessleri(Anikin 1905) (Siberian brook lamprey)
  • Lethenteron ninaeNaseka, Tuniyev & Renaud 2009 (Western Transcaucasian lamprey)
  • Lethenteron reissneri(Dybowski 1869) (Far Eastern brook lamprey)
  • Lethenteron zanandreai(Vladykov 1955) (Lombardy lamprey)
  • Eudontomyzon stankokaramani(Karaman 1974) (Drin brook lamprey)
  • Eudontomyzon morii(Berg 1931) (Korean lamprey)
  • Eudontomyzon danfordiRegan 1911 (Carpathian brook lamprey)
  • Eudontomyzon mariae(Berg 1931) (Ukrainian brook lamprey)
  • Eudontomyzon vladykovi(Oliva & Zanandrea 1959) (Vladykov's lamprey)
  • Lampetra aepyptera(Abbott 1860) (Least brook lamprey)
  • Lampetra alavariensisMateus et al. 2013 (Portuguese lamprey)
  • Lampetra auremensisMateus et al. 2013 (Qurem lamprey)
  • Lampetra ayresi(Günther 1870) (Western river lamprey)
  • Lampetra fluviatilis(Linnaeus 1758) (European river lamprey)
  • Lampetra hubbsi(Vladykov & Kott 1976) (Kern brook lamprey)
  • Lampetra lanceolataKux & Steiner 1972 (Turkish brook lamprey)
  • Lampetra lusitanicaMateus et al. 2013 (lusitanic lamprey)
  • Lampetra pacificaVladykov 1973 (Pacific brook lamprey)
  • Lampetra planeri(Bloch 1784) (European brook lamprey)
  • Lampetra richardsoniVladykov & Follett 1965 (Western brook lamprey)
  • Entosphenus macrostomusDr. Dick Beamish 1980 (Cowichan lake lamprey)

Synapomorphies are certain characteristics that are shared over evolutionary history. Organisms possessing a notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, pituitary gland/endostyle, and a post anal tail during the process of their development are considered to be Chordates. Lampreys contain these characteristics that define them as chordates. Lamprey anatomy is very different based on what stage of development they are in. [69] The notochord is derived from the mesoderm and is one of the defining characteristics of a chordate. The notochord provides signaling and mechanical cues to help the organism when swimming. The dorsal nerve cord is another characteristic of lampreys that defines them as chordates. During development this part of the ectoderm rolls creating a hollow tube. This is often why it is referred to as the dorsal "hollow" nerve cord. The third Chordate feature, which are the pharyngeal slits, are openings found between the pharynx or throat. [70] Pharyngeal slits are filter feeding organs that help the movement of water through the mouth and out of these slits when feeing. During the lamprey's larval stage they rely on filter feeding as a mechanism for obtaining their food. [71] Once lampreys reach their adult phase they become parasitic on other fish, and these gill slits become very important in aiding in the respiration of the organism. The final Chordate synapomorphy is the post anal tail which is a muscular tail that extends behind the anus.

Often times adult amphioxus and lamprey larvae are compared by anatomists due to their similarities. Similarities between adult amphioxus and lamprey larvae include a pharynx with pharyngeal slits, a notochord, a dorsal hollow nerve cord and a series of somites that extend anterior to the otic vesicle. [72]

Fossil record Edit

Lamprey fossils are rare because cartilage does not fossilize as readily as bone. The first fossil lampreys were originally found in Early Carboniferous limestones, marine sediments in North America: Mayomyzon pieckoensis and Hardistiella montanensis, from the Mississippian Mazon Creek lagerstätte and the Bear Gulch limestone sequence. None of the fossil lampreys found to date have been longer than 10 cm (3,9 inches), [73] and all the Paleozoic forms have been found in marine deposits. [74]

In the 22 June 2006 issue of Nature, Mee-mann Chang and colleagues reported on a fossil lamprey from the Yixian Formation of Inner Mongolia. The new species, morphologically similar to Carboniferous and other forms, was given the name Mesomyzon mengae ("Meng Qingwen's Mesozoic lamprey").

The exceedingly well-preserved fossil showed a well-developed sucking oral disk, a relatively long branchial apparatus showing a branchial basket, seven gill pouches, gill arches, and even the impressions of gill filaments, and about 80 myomeres of its musculature. Unlike the North American fossils, its habitat was almost certainly fresh water. [75]

Months later, a fossil lamprey even older than the Mazon Creek genera was reported from Witteberg Group rocks near Grahamstown, in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Dating back 360 Million years, this species, Priscomyzon riniensis, is very similar to lampreys found today. [76] [77] [78]

The lamprey has been extensively studied because its relatively simple brain is thought in many respects to reflect the brain structure of early vertebrate ancestors. Beginning in the 1970s, Sten Grillner and his colleagues at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm followed on from extensive work on the lamprey started by Carl Rovainen in the 1960s that used the lamprey as a model system to work out the fundamental principles of motor control in vertebrates starting in the spinal cord and working toward the brain. [80]

In a series of studies by Rovainen and his student James Buchanan, the cells that formed the neural circuits within the spinal cord capable of generating the rhythmic motor patterns that underlie swimming were examined. Note that there are still missing details in the network scheme despite claims by Grillner that the network is characterised (Parker 2006, 2010 [81] [82] ). Spinal cord circuits are controlled by specific locomotor areas in the brainstem and midbrain, and these areas are in turn controlled by higher brain structures, including the basal ganglia and tectum.

In a study of the lamprey tectum published in 2007, [83] they found electrical stimulation could elicit eye movements, lateral bending movements, or swimming activity, and the type, amplitude, and direction of movement varied as a function of the location within the tectum that was stimulated. These findings were interpreted as consistent with the idea that the tectum generates goal-directed locomotion in the lamprey.

Lampreys are used as a model organism in biomedical research, where their large reticulospinal axons are used to investigate synaptic transmission. [84] The axons of lamprey are particularly large and allow for microinjection of substances for experimental manipulation.

They are also capable of full functional recovery after complete spinal cord transection. Another trait is the ability to delete several genes from their somatic cell lineages, about 20% of their DNA, which are vital during development of the embryo, but which in humans can cause problems such as cancer later in life, after they have served their purpose. How the genes destined for deletion are targeted is not yet known. [85] [86]

As food Edit

Lampreys have long been used as food for humans. [87] They were highly appreciated by the ancient Romans. During the Middle Ages they were widely eaten by the upper classes throughout Europe, especially during Lent, when eating meat was prohibited, due to their meaty taste and texture. King Henry I of England is claimed to have been so fond of lampreys that he often ate them late into life and poor health against the advice of his physician concerning their richness, and is said to have died from eating "a surfeit of lampreys". Whether or not his lamprey indulgence actually caused his death is unclear. [88]

On 4 March 1953, Queen Elizabeth II's coronation pie was made by the Royal Air Force using lampreys. [89]

In southwestern Europe (Portugal, Spain, and France), Finland and in Latvia (where lamprey is routinely sold in supermarkets), lampreys are a highly prized delicacy. In Finland (county of Nakkila), [90] and Latvia (Carnikava Municipality), the river lamprey is the symbol of the place, found on their coats of arms. In 2015 the lamprey from Carnikava was included in the Protected designation of origin list by the European Commission. [91]

Sea lamprey is the most sought-after species in Portugal and one of only two that can legally bear the commercial name "lamprey" (lampreia): the other one being Lampetra fluviatilis, the European river lamprey, both according to Portaria (Government regulation no. 587/2006, from 22 June). "Arroz de lampreia" or lamprey rice is one of the most important dishes in Portuguese cuisine.

Lampreys are also consumed in Sweden, Russia, Lithuania, Estonia, Japan, and South Korea. [ citation needed ] In Finland, they are commonly eaten grilled or smoked, but also pickled, or in vinegar. [93]

The mucus and serum of several lamprey species, including the Caspian lamprey (Caspiomyzon wagneri), river lampreys (Lampetra fluviatilis and L. planeri), and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), are known to be toxic, and require thorough cleaning before cooking and consumption. [94] [95]

In Britain, lampreys are commonly used as bait, normally as dead bait. Northern pike, perch, and chub all can be caught on lampreys. Frozen lampreys can be bought from most bait and tackle shops.

As pests Edit

Sea lampreys have become a major pest in the North American Great Lakes. It is generally believed that they gained access to the lakes via canals during the early 20th century, [96] [97] but this theory is controversial. [98] They are considered an invasive species, have no natural enemies in the lakes, and prey on many species of commercial value, such as lake trout. [96]

Lampreys are now found mostly in the streams that feed the lakes, and controlled with special barriers to prevent the upstream movement of adults, or by the application of toxicants called lampricides, which are harmless to most other aquatic species however, these programs are complicated and expensive, and do not eradicate the lampreys from the lakes, but merely keep them in check. [99]

New programs are being developed, including the use of chemically sterilized male lampreys in a method akin to the sterile insect technique. [100] Finally, pheromones critical to lamprey migratory behaviour have been isolated, their chemical structures determined, and their impact on lamprey behaviour studied, in the laboratory and in the wild, and active efforts are underway to chemically source and to address regulatory considerations that might allow this strategy to proceed. [101] [102] [103]

Control of sea lampreys in the Great Lakes is conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and is coordinated by the Great Lakes Fishery Commission. [104] Lake Champlain, bordered by New York, Vermont, and Quebec, and New York's Finger Lakes are also home to high populations of sea lampreys that warrant control. [105] Lake Champlain's lamprey control program is managed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. [105] New York's Finger Lakes sea lamprey control program is managed solely by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. [105]

In folklore Edit

In folklore, lampreys are called "nine-eyed eels". The name is derived from the seven external gill slits that, along with one nostril and one eye, line each side of a lamprey's head section. Likewise, the German word for lamprey is Neunauge, which means "nine-eye", [106] and in Japanese they are called yatsume-unagi (八つ目鰻, "eight-eyed eels"), which excludes the nostril from the count. In British folklore, the monster known as the Lambton Worm may have been based on a lamprey, since it is described as an eel-like creature with nine eyes. [ citation needed ]

In literature Edit

Vedius Pollio kept a pool of lampreys into which slaves who incurred his displeasure would be thrown as food. [107] On one occasion, Vedius was punished by Augustus for attempting to do so in his presence:

. one of his slaves had broken a crystal cup. Vedius ordered him to be seized and then put to death, but in an unusual way. He ordered him to be thrown to the huge lampreys which he had in his fish pond. Who would not think he did this for display? Yet it was out of cruelty. The boy slipped from the captor's hands and fled to Augustus' feet asking nothing else other than a different way to die – he did not want to be eaten. Augustus was moved by the novelty of the cruelty and ordered him to be released, all the crystal cups to be broken before his eyes, and the fish pond to be filled in.

This incident was incorporated into the plot of the 2003 novel Pompeii by Robert Harris in the incident of Ampliatus feeding a slave to his lampreys.

Lucius Licinius Crassus was mocked by Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (cos. 54 BC) for weeping over the death of his pet lamprey:

So, when Domitius said to Crassus the orator, Did not you weep for the death of the lamprey you kept in your fish pond? – Did not you, said Crassus to him again, bury three wives without ever shedding a tear? – Plutarch, On the Intelligence of Animals, 976a [109]

This story is also found in Aelian (Various Histories VII, 4) and Macrobius (Saturnalia III.15.3). It is included by Hugo von Hofmannsthal in the Chandos Letter:

And in my mind I compare myself from time to time with the orator Crassus, of whom it is reported that he grew so excessively enamoured of a tame lamprey – a dumb, apathetic, red-eyed fish in his ornamental pond – that it became the talk of the town and when one day in the Senate Domitius reproached him for having shed tears over the death of this fish, attempting thereby to make him appear a fool, Crassus answered, "Thus have I done over the death of my fish as you have over the death of neither your first nor your second wife."

I know not how oft this Crassus with his lamprey enters my mind as a mirrored image of my Self, reflected across the abyss of centuries.

In George R. R. Martin's novel series, A Song of Ice and Fire, Lord Wyman Manderly is mockingly called "Lord Lamprey" by his enemies in reference to his rumored affinity to lamprey pie and his striking obesity. [111]

Kurt Vonnegut, in his late short story "The Big Space Fuck", posits a future America so heavily polluted – "Everything had turned to shit and beer cans", in his words – that the Great Lakes have been infested with a species of massive, man-eating ambulatory lampreys. [112]

Lucius Licinius Lucullus

¶ Sylla sends Lucullus to Egypt and Libya for reënforcements in the war.

¶ The coming Third Mithridatic War (75-65 B.C.) marks the beginning of the rivalry between Lucullus and Pompey for command and glory.

Sleep'st thou, great lion, when the fawns are nigh?

Rising up hereupon, he called his friends to him, it being yet night, and told them his vision at which instant some Ilians came up and acquainted him that thirteen of the king's quinqueremes were seen off the Achaean harbor, sailing for Lemnos. He at once put to sea, took these, and slew their admiral Isidorus. And then he made after another squadron, who were just come into port, and were hauling their vessels ashore, but fought from the decks, and sorely galled Lucullus's men there being neither room to sail round them, nor to bear upon them for any damage, his ships being afloat, while theirs stood secure and fixed on the sand. After much ado, at the only landing-place of the island, he disembarked the choicest of his men, who, falling upon the enemy behind, killed some, and forced others to cut their cables, and thus making from the shore, they fell foul upon one another, or came within the reach of Lucullus's fleet. Many were killed in the action. Among the captives was Marius, the commander sent by Sertorius, who had but one eye. And it was Lucullus's strict command to his men before the engagement, that they should kill no man who had but one eye, that he might rather die under disgrace and reproach.

¶ The soldiers of Lucullus begin to murmur against him because they are being fatigued in pursuit of Mithridates with no compensating plunder.

¶ Mithridates prepares for the final defeat, even ordering his wives and sisters to take their own lives rather than be taken by the advancing Romans.

¶ Seeing the city falling to the Romans, the commander of Amisus, Callimachus, sets fire to the city.

¶ The son of Mithridates concludes peace with Lucullus.

¶ Lucullus turns to war against Tigranes.

Here Ends Plutarch's Life of Lucullus.

/1/ Emulation in this instance carries a pegorative meaning of jealous rivalry not the laudatory quality we now understand by that term in Dryden's day both meanings were current.

/2/ Brotherly affection is a recurring theme in Plutarch, as, for example in Life of Cato the Younger, 3. Indeed, philadelphia is the subject of one his longer essays in the Moralia.

/3/ For an account of the First Mithridatic War, see Plutarch's Life of Sylla, 11-21.

/5/ Who upon entering Corinth plundered the city and put all men, women, and children to the sword.

/6/ Not Cato's half sister Servila who was the mother of Marcus Brutus and lover of Julius Caesar.

Silver Largitio Dish with the Name of Licinius - History

Nebuchadnezzar dreamed dreams wherewith his spirit was troubled - The dream had made a deep and solemn impression upon his mind and, having forgotten all but general circumstances, his mind was distressed.

The astrologers - אשפים ashshaphim. Perhaps from נשף nashaph, to breathe, because they laid claim to Divine inspiration but probably the persons in question were the philosophers and astronomers among the Babylonians.

The sorcerers - מכשפים mechashshephim. See the note on Deuteronomy 18:10, and on Exodus 22:18 (note), and Leviticus 19:31 (note), where several of these arts are explained.

The Chaldeans - Who these were is difficult to be ascertained. They might be a college of learned men, where all arts and sciences were professed and taught. The Chaldeans were the most ancient philosophers of the world they might have been originally inhabitants of the Babylonian Irak and still have preserved to themselves exclusively the name of Chaldeans, to distinguish themselves from other nations and peoples who inhabited the one hundred and twenty provinces of which the Babylonish government was composed.

O king, live for ever - מלכא לעלמין חיי Malca leolmin cheyi. With these words the Chaldee part of Daniel commences and continues to the end of the seventh chapter. These kinds of compliments are still in use in the East Indies. A superior gives a blessing to an inferior by saying to him, when the latter is in the act of doing him reverence, "Long life to thee." A poor man, going into the presence of a king to solicit a favor, uses the same kind of address: O father, thou art the support of the destitute mayest thou live to old age! - Ward's Customs.

The soothsayers - One of our old words: "The tellers of truth:" but גזרין gazerin is the name of another class of those curious artists, unless we suppose it to mean the same as the Chaldeans, Daniel 2:2. They are supposed to be persons who divined by numbers, amulets, etc. There are many conjectures about them, which, whatever learning they show, cast little light upon this place.

In the latter days - A phrase which, in the prophets, generally means the times of the Messiah. God is about to show what shall take place from this time to the latest ages of the world. And the vision most certainly contains a very extensive and consecutive prophecy which I shall treat more largely at the close of the chapter, giving in the mean time a short exposition.

Breast and his arms of silver - The Medo-Persian empire, under Cyrus, etc.

His belly and his thighs of brass - The Macedonian empire, under Alexander the Great, and his successors.

His feet part of iron and part of clay - The same, mixed with the barbaric nations, and divided into ten kingdoms. See at the end of the chapter.

Power - To rule this kingdom.

And strength - To defend it against all foes.

And glory - Great honor and dignity.

The kingdoms of Israel and Judah after a series of the most unparalleled ingratitude and rebellion, against displays of mercy and benevolence, only equaled by their rebellions, were at last, according to repeated threatenings, given over into the hands of their enemies. The inhabitants of the former country were subdued and carried away captives by the Assyrians and those of the latter, by the Chaldeans.

The people of Israel never recovered their ancient territories and were so disposed of by their conquerors, that they either became amalgamated with the heathen nations, so as to be utterly undistinguishable or they were transported to some foreign and recluse place of settlement, that the land of their residence, though repeatedly sought for and guessed at, has for more than two thousand years been totally unknown.

Judah, after having been harassed by the Chaldeans, Egyptians, and others, was at last invaded by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon Jerusalem besieged and taken and Jehoiachin the king, who had before become tributary to the Babylonians, with his mother, wives, officers of state, and chief military commanders, princes, and mighty men of valor, to the amount of ten thousand and all the artificers, smiths, etc., to the number of one thousand, with all that were fit for war, he carried captives to Babylon leaving only the poorest of the people behind, under the government of Mattaniah, son of the late king Josiah, and uncle to Jehoiachin and, having changed his name to Zedekiah, gave him a nominal authority as king over the wretched remains of the people. Zedekiah, after having reigned nine years, rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar, who, coming against Jerusalem with all his forces, besieged it and having reduced it to the last extremity by famine, and made a breach in the walls, took the city, pillaged and destroyed the temple by fire, slew the sons of Zedekiah before his face, then put out his eyes, and carried him bound in brazen fetters to Babylon, 2 Kings, chap. 24 and 25. Thus, the temple of God, the most glorious building ever laid on the face of the earth, was profaned, pillaged, and burnt, with the king's palace, and all the houses of the Jewish nobility, in the eleventh year of Zedekiah, - the nineteenth of Nebuchadnezzar, - the first of the forty-eight Olympiad, - the one hundred and sixtieth current year of the era of Nabonassar, - four hundred and twenty-four years, three months, and eight days from the time in which Solomon laid its foundation stone!

In the same month in which the city was taken, and the temple burnt, Nebuzar-adan, commander in chief of the Babylonish forces, carried off the spoils of the temple, with the Jewish treasures, and the principal part of the residue of the people and brought them also to Babylon. And thus Judah was carried away out of her own land, four hundred and sixty-eight years after David began to reign over it from the division under Rehoboam, three hundred and eighty-eight years from the destruction of the kingdom of Israel, one hundred and thirty-four years in the year of the world, three thousand four hundred and sixteen and before the nativity of our Lord, five hundred and eighty-eight.

In the fourth year of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, A.M. 3397, b.c. 607, Nebuchadnezzar, having besieged Jerusalem, and made its king tributary, carried away a number of captives and among them was the Prophet Daniel, then in his youth, who became, for his wisdom, and knowledge of future events, very eminent at Babylon and, with some other Jewish captives, great favorites of Nebuchadnezzar the king who made Daniel president of all the wise men of his city. It was in the second year of the reign of this king, that a circumstance occurred which, though at first it threatened the destruction of the prophet, finally issued in the increase of his reputation and celebrity.

As prophecy is one of the strongest proofs of the authenticity of what professes to be a Divine revelation, God endued this man with a large portion of his Spirit, so that he clearly predicted some of the most astonishing political occurrences and changes which have ever taken place on the earth no less than the rise, distinguishing characteristics, and termination of the Four great monarchies or empires, which have been so celebrated in all the histories of the world. And as the Babylonian, under which he then lived, was one of these monarchies, and was shortly to be absorbed by the Medo-Persian, which was to succeed it, he made Nebuchadnezzar, the then reigning monarch, by means of a most singular dream, the particulars of which he had forgotten, the instrument that appeared to give birth to a prediction, in which the ruin of his own empire was foretold as well as other mighty changes which should take place in the political state of the world, for at least the term of one thousand years next ensuing. Nor did the prophetic Spirit in this eminent man limit his predictions to these but showed at the same time the origin and nature of that Fifth monarchy, which, under the great King of kings, should be administered and prevail to the end of time.

The dream itself, with its interpretation, and the exact and impressive manner in which the predictions relative to the four great monarchies have been fulfilled, and those which regard the fifth monarchy are in the course of being accomplished, are the subjects to which I wish to call the reader's most serious and deliberate attention.

This image, so circumstantially described from the thirty-eighth to the forty-fourth verse, was, as we learn from the prophet's general solution, intended to point out the rise and fall of four different empires and states and the final prevalence and establishment of a fifth empire, that shall never have an end, and which shall commence in the last days, Daniel 2:28 a phrase commonly used in the prophets to signify the times of the Messiah, and in the New Testament, his advent to judge the world.

Before we proceed to particular parts, we may remark in general, that the whole account strongly indicates: -

1. The especial providence of God in behalf of the Jews at that time. For, although suffering grievously because of their sins, being deprived of both their political and personal liberty, God shows them that he has not abandoned them and the existence of a prophet among them is a proof of his fatherly care and unremitted attention to their eternal welfare.

2. The particular interference of God to manifest the superiority of his truth, to wean an idolatrous nation from their vanity and superstition, and lead them to that God who is the fountain of truth, the revealer of secrets, and the governor of all things. And,

3. The direct inspiration of God immediately teaching his servant things which could be known only to God himself, and thus showing the Babylonians that his prophets had spoken by an unerring Spirit that the Jews were the depositaries of the true religion that He was the only true God and as he was omniscient, so he was omnipotent and the things which his wisdom had predicted, his power could and would accomplish.

The sum of the account given in this chapter is the following: -

1. Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, in the second year of his reign, about A.M. 3401, and b.c. 603, had a remarkable dream, which, although it made a deep impression on his mind, yet, on his awakening, he found it impossible to recollect the general impression only remaining.

2. He summoned his wise men, astrologers, etc., told them that he had a dream or vision, which he had forgotten and commanded them to tell him the dream, and give its interpretation.

3. They request the king to tell them the dream and promise, then, to make known the meaning. This he could not do, having forgotten it yet he insists on their compliance on pain of death.

4. To tell the king his dream they find impossible and a decree for the destruction of the wise men of Babylon is issued, in which Daniel and his fellows are included.

5. Daniel, hearing of it, speaks to Arioch, captain of the king's guard or the royal executioner desires to be brought before the king and promises to tell the dream, etc.

6. He is introduced and immediately tells the king what he had dreamed, and shows him its interpretation.

A vast image, exceedingly luminous, of terrible form, and composed of different substances, appears in a night vision to the king, of which the following is the description: -

I. Its head was of fine gold.

II. Its breast and arms of silver.

III. Its belly and thighs of brass.

IV. Its legs of iron, and its feet and toes of iron and clay. While gazing on this image he sees: -

V. A stone cut out of a mountain without hands, which smites the image on its feet, and dashes it all to pieces and the gold, and silver, brass, iron, and clay become as small and as light as chaff.

VI. A wind carries the whole away, so that no place is found for them.

VII. The stone becomes a great mountain, and fills the earth.

In order to explain this, certain Data must be laid down.

1. This image is considered a political representation of as many different governments, as it was composed of materials and as all these materials are successively inferior to each other, so are the governments in a descending ratio.

2. The human figure has been used, both by historians and geographers, to represent the rise, progress, establishment, and decay of empires, as well as the relative situation and importance of the different parts of the government. Thus Florus, in the proaemium to his Roman history, represents the Romans under the form of a human being, in its different stages, from infancy to old age, viz.

Si quis ergo populum Romanum quasi hominem consideret, totamque ejus aetatem percenseat, ut Coeperit, utque Adoleverit, ut quasi ad quemdam Juventae florem pervenerit ut postea velut Consenuerit, quatuor gradus progressusque ejus inveniet.

1. Prima aetas sub Regibus fuit, prope ducentos quinquaginta per annos, quibus circum ipsam matrem suam cum finitimis luctatus est. Haec erit ejus Infantia.

2. Sequens a Bruto, Collatinoque consulibus, in Appium Claudium, Quinctiumque Fulvium consules, ducentos quinquaginta annos habet, quibus Italiam subegit. Hoc fuit tempus viris armisque exercitatissi mum! ideo quis Adolescentiam dixerit.

3. Dehinc ad Caesarem Augustum, ducenti quinquaginta anni, quibus totum orbem pacavit. Hic jam ipsa Juventa Imperii, et quasi quaedam robusta Maturitas.

4. A Caesare Augusto in saeculum, nostrum, sunt non multo minus anni ducenti, quibus inertia Caesarum quasi Consenuit atque Decoxit. L. An. Flori Prooem.

1. Infancy first stage - under Kings, from Romulus to Tarquinius Superbus about two hundred and fifty years.

2. Youth second stage - under Consuls, from Brutus and Collatinus to Appius Claudius and M. Fulvius about two hundred and fifty years.

3. Manhood third stage - the empire from the conquest of Italy to Caesar Augustus about two hundred and fifty years.

4. Old Age fourth stage - from Augustus, through the twelve Caesars, down to a.d. 200 about two hundred years.

Geographers have made similar representations, The Germanic empire, in the totality of its dependent states, has been represented by a map in the form of a man different parts being pointed out by head, breast, arm, belly, thighs, legs, feet, etc., according to their geographical and political relation to the empire in general.

3. Different metals are used to express different degrees of political strength, excellence, durability, etc.

4. Clay, earth, dust, are emblems of weakness, instability, etc.

5. Mountains express, in Scripture, mighty empires, kingdoms, and states.

6. Stone signifies Jesus Christ, Genesis 49:24 "From thence" (of the posterity of Jacob) "is the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel." That our blessed Lord, "the good shepherd," John 10:11-17, is here intended, will appear most plainly from the following passages Isaiah 8:14 : "And he shall be for a sanctuary but for a Stone Of stumbling and for a Rock of offense to both the houses of Israel." Isaiah 28:16 : "Thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a Stone, a tried Stone, a precious corner Stone, a sure foundation he that believeth shall not make haste." 1 Peter 2:4, 1 Peter 2:6, 1 Peter 2:8. Collate these with Psalm 118:22 : "The Stone which the builders refused is become the head Stone of the corner." Matthew 21:42 Mark 12:10 Luke 20:17 Acts 4:11 in which latter quotations the whole is positively applied to Christ as also 1 Peter 2:4-8 : "To whom coming as unto a living Stone," etc. who seems to have all the preceding passages in view. See also Isaiah 2:2 : "The mountain of the Lord's house shall be established in the top of the mountains," etc.

7. This stone is said to be cut out without hands, Daniel 2:34. Without hands signifies that which is spiritual. So 2 Corinthians 5:1, a house not made with hands means a spiritual building.

The Chaldean empire, called the Assyrian in its commencement, the Chaldean from the country, the Babylonish from its chief city.

I. Head of Gold. This was the first monarchy, begun by Nimrod, A.M. 1771, b.c. 2233, and ending with the death of Belshazzar, A.M. 3466, b.c. 538, after having lasted nearly seventeen hundred years. In the time of Nebuchadnezzar it extended over Chaldea, Assyria, Arabia, Syria, and Palestine. He, Nebuchadnezzar, was the head or gold.

II. Breasts and Arms of Silver. The Medo-Persian empire which properly began under Darius the Mede, allowing him to be the same with Cyaxares, son of Astyages, and uncle to Cyrus the great, son of Cambyses. He first fought under his uncle Cyaxares, defeated Neriglissar, king of the Assyrians, and Craesus, king of the Lydians and, by the capture of Babylon, b.c. 538, terminated the Chaldean empire. On the death of his father Cambyses, and his uncle Cyaxares, b.c. 536, he became sole governor of the Medes and Persians, and thus established a potent empire on the ruins of that of the Chaldeans.

III. Belly and Thighs of Brass. The Macedonian or Greek empire, founded by Alexander the Great. He subdued Greece, penetrated into Asia, took Tyre, reduced Egypt, overthrew Darius Codomanus at Arbela, Oct. 2, A.M. 3673, b.c. 331, and thus terminated the Persian monarchy. He crossed the Caucasus, subdued Hyrcania, and penetrated India as far as the Ganges and having conquered all the countries that lay between the Adriatic sea and this river, the Ganges, he died A.M. 3681, b.c. 323 and after his death his empire became divided among his generals, Cassander, Lysimachus, Ptolemy, and Seleucus. Cassander had Macedon and Greece Lysimachus had Thrace, and those parts of Asia which lay on the Hellespont and Bosphorus Ptolemy had Egypt, Lybia, Arabia, Palestine, and Coelesyria Seleucus had Babylon, Media, Susiana, Persia, Assyria, Bactria, Hyrcania, and all other provinces, even to the Ganges. Thus this empire, founded on the ruin of that of the Persians, "had rule over all the earth."

IV. Legs of Iron, and Feet and Toes of Iron and Clay. I think this means, in the first place, the kingdom of the Lagidae, in Egypt and the kingdom of the Seleucidae, in Syria. And, secondly, the Roman empire, which was properly composed of them.

1. Ptolemy Lagus, one of Alexander's generals, began the new kingdom of Egypt, A.M. 3692, b.c. 312, which was continued through a long race of sovereigns, till A.M. 3974, b.c. 30 when Octavius Caesar took Alexandria, having in the preceding year defeated Anthony and Cleopatra at the battle of Actium, and so Egypt became a Roman province. Thus ended the kingdom of the Lagidae, after it had lasted two hundred and eighty-two years.

2. Seleucus Nicator, another of Alexander's generals, began the new kingdom of Syria, A.M. 3692, b.c. 312, which continued through a long race of sovereigns, till A.M. 3939, b.c. 65, when Pompey dethroned Antiochus Asiaticus, and Syria became a Roman province after it had lasted two hundred and forty-seven years.

That the two legs of iron meant the kingdom of the Lagidae and that of the Seleucidae, seems strongly intimated by the characters given in the text. "And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron. Forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise," Daniel 2:40.

1. The iron here not only marks the strength of these kingdoms, but also their violence and cruelty towards the people of God. History is full of the miseries which the kings of Egypt and Syria inflicted on the Jews.

2. It is said that these legs should break in pieces and bruise. How many generals and princes were destroyed by Seleucus Nicator, and by Ptolemy, son of Lagus! Seleucus, particularly, could not consider himself secure on his throne till he had destroyed Antigonus, Nicanor, and Demetrius and Ptolemy endeavored to secure himself by the ruin of Perdiccas, and the rest of his enemies.

3. The dividing of the kingdom, the iron and clayey mixture of the feet, point out the continual divisions which prevailed in those empires and the mixture of the good and evil qualities which appeared in the successors of Seleucus and Ptolemy none of them possessing the good qualities of the founders of those monarchies neither their valor, wisdom, nor prudence.

4. The efforts which these princes made to strengthen their respective governments by alliances, which all proved not only useless but injurious, are here pointed out by their mingling themselves with the seed of men. "But they shall not cleave one to another," Daniel 2:43. Antiochus Theos, king of Syria, married both Laodice and Berenice, daughters of Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt. Antiochus Magnus, king of Syria, gave his daughter Cleopatra to Ptolemy Epiphanes, king of Egypt but these marriages, instead of being the means of consolidating the union between those kingdoms, contributed more than any thing else to divide them, and excite the most bloody and destructive wars.

In Daniel 7:7, the prophet, having the same subject in view, says, "I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it," and in Daniel 8:22 : "Now that being broken," the horn of the rough goat, the Grecian monarchy, "whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power." These and other declarations point out those peculiar circumstances that distinctly mark the kingdom of the Seleucidae, and that of the Lagidae both of which rose out of the Macedonian or Grecian empire, and both terminated in that of the Romans.

3. These Two Legs of Iron became absorbed in the Roman government, which also partook of the iron nature strong, military, and extensive in its victories and by its various conquests united to and amalgamated with itself various nations, some strong, and some weak, so as to be fitly represented in the symbolical image by feet and toes, partly of iron and partly of clay. Thus, as the Lagidae and Seleucidae arose out of the wreck of the Grecian empire so the Roman empire arose out of their ruin. But the empire became weakened by its conquests and although, by mingling themselves with the seed of men, that is, by strong leagues, and matrimonial alliances, as mentioned above they endeavored to secure a perpetual sovereignty, yet they did not cleave to each other, and they also were swallowed up by the barbarous northern nations and thus terminated those four most powerful monarchies.

V. "A stone cut out of the mountain without hands."

1. That Jesus Christ has been represented by a stone, we have already seen but this stone refers chiefly to his Church, which is represented as a spiritual building which he supports as a foundation stone, connects and strengthens as a corner stone, and finishes and adorns as a top stone! He is called a stone also in reference to the prejudice conceived against him by his countrymen. Because he did not come in worldly pomp they therefore refused to receive him and to them he is represented as a stone of stumbling, and rock of offense.

2. But here he is represented under another notion, viz., that of a stone projected from a catapult, or some military engine, which smote the image on its feet that is, it smote the then existing government at its foundation, or principles of support and by destroying these, brought the whole into ruin.

3. By this stroke the clay, the iron, the brass, the silver, and the gold were broken to pieces, and became like chaff which the wind carried away. Now we have already seen that the Roman empire, which had absorbed the kingdoms of the Lagidae and Seleucidae, was represented by the legs of iron, and feet and toes of iron and clay but as we find that not only the iron and clay, but also the brass, silver, and gold were confounded and destroyed by that stroke, it follows that there was then remaining in and compacted with the Roman government, something of the distinguishing marks and principles of all the preceding empires not only as to their territorial possessions, but also as to their distinctive characteristics. There were at the time here referred to in the Roman empire, the splendor of the Chaldeans, the riches of the Persians, the discipline of the Greeks, and the strength of the Egyptian and Syrian governments, mingled with the incoherence and imbecility of those empires, kingdoms, and states which the Romans had subdued. In short, with every political excellence, it contains the principles of its own destruction, and its persecution of the Church of Christ accelerated its ruin.

4. As the stone represents Christ and his governing influence, it is here said to be a kingdom, that is, a state of prevailing rule and government and was to arise in the days of those kings or kingdoms, Daniel 2:44. And this is literally true for its rise was when the Roman government, partaking of all the characteristics of the preceding empires, was at its zenith of imperial splendor, military glory, legislative authority, and literary eminence. It took place a few years after the battle of Actium, and when Rome was at peace with the whole world, September 2, b.c. 31.

5. This stone or government was cut out of the mountain, arose in and under the Roman government, Judea being, at the time of the birth of Christ, a Roman province.

6. It was cut out without hands probably alluding to the miraculous birth of our Lord, but particularly to the spiritual nature of his kingdom and government, in which no worldly policy, human maxims, or military force were employed for it was not by might nor power, but by the Spirit of the Lord of hosts.

Two things may be here distinguished:

1. The government or kingdom of the Stone.

2. The government or kingdom of the Mountain.

1. The kingdom of the Stone smites, breaks to pieces, and destroys all the other kingdoms, till no vestige of them remains, and till the whole earth is subdued by it.

2. The kingdom of the Mountain fills, and continues to govern, all that has been thus subdued, maintaining endless peace and righteousness in the earth.

First, The stone began to strike the image, when the apostles went out into every part of the Roman empire, pulling down idolatry, and founding Christian Churches.

Secondly, But the great blow was given to the heathen Roman empire by the conversion of Constantine, just at the time when it was an epitome of the four great monarchies, being under the government of Four Emperors at once, a.d. 308: Constantius, who governed Gaul, Spain, and Britain Galerius, who had Illyricum, Thrace and Asia Severus, who had Italy and Africa and Maximin, who had the East and Egypt.

1. The conversion of Constantine took place while he was in Gaul, a.d. 312, by the appearance of a luminous cross in the sky above the sun, a little after noon-day, with this inscription, Εν τουτῳ νικα, "By this conquer" Euseb. De Vit. Const. lib. 1 cap. 28. In a.d. 324 he totally defeated Licinius, who had shared the empire with him, and became sole emperor. He terminated the reign of idolatry in a.d. 331, by an edict ordering the destruction of all the heathen temples. This made Christianity the religion of the empire.

2. The stroke which thus destroyed idolatry in the Roman empire is continual in its effects and must be so till idolatry be destroyed over the face of the earth, and the universe filled with the knowledge of Christ.

3. This smiting has been continued by all the means which God in his providence and mercy has used for the dissemination of Christianity, from the time of Constantine to the present: and particularly now, by means of the British and Foreign Bible society, and its countless ramifications, and by the numerous missionaries sent by Christian societies to almost every part of the globe. Thus far the kingdom of the stone.

In Daniel 2:44, the kingdom of the stone, grown into a great mountain and filling the whole earth, is particularly described by various characters.

1. It is a kingdom which the God of heaven sets up. That this means the whole dispensation of the Gospel, and the moral effects produced by it in the souls of men and in the world, needs little proof for our Lord, referring to this and other prophecies in this book, calls its influence and his Gospel the kingdom of God, and the kingdom of heaven showing thereby that it is a kingdom not of this world - not raised by human ambition, the lust of rule, or military conquest but a spiritual kingdom, raised and maintained by the grace of God himself in which he himself lives and rules governing by his own laws, influencing and directing by his own Spirit producing, not wars and contentions, but glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace and good will among men.

2. This is called the kingdom of heaven, because it is to be a counterpart of the kingdom of glory. The kingdom of God, says the apostle, is righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost, (Romans 14:17) righteousness, without any sin peace, without inward disturbance joy, without any mental unhappiness. An eternity of righteousness, peace, and spiritual joy constitutes Heaven nor can we conceive in that state any thing higher or more excellent than these.

3. This kingdom shall never be destroyed: it is the everlasting Gospel, and the work of the everlasting God. As it neither originates in nor is dependent on the passions of men, it cannot be destroyed. All other governments, from the imperfection of their nature, contain in them the seeds of their own destruction. Kings die, ministers change, subjects are not permanent new relations arise, and with them new measures, new passions, and new projects and these produce political changes, and often political ruin. But this government, being the government of God, cannot be affected by the changes and chances to which mortal things are exposed.

4. This kingdom shall not be left to other people. Every dispensation of God, prior to Christianity, supposed another by which it was to be succeeded.

1. Holy patriarchs and their families were the first people among whom the kingdom of God was found.

2. Hebrews, in Egypt and in the wilderness, were the next.

3. Jews, in the promised land, were a third denomination.

4. And after the division of the kingdoms, captivity, and dispersion of the Jews, the Israel of God became a fourth denomination.

5. Under the Gospel, Christian is the name of the people of this kingdom. Every thing in the construction of the Gospel system, as well as its own declarations, shows that it is not to be succeeded by any other dispensation: its name can never be changed and Christian will be the only denomination of the people of God while sun and moon endure. All former empires have changed, and the very names of the people have changed with them. The Assyrians were lost in the Chaldeans and Babylonians the Babylonians were lost in the Medes the Medes in the Persians the Persians in the Greeks and the Greeks in the Syrians and Egyptians these in the Romans and the Romans in the Goths, and a variety of other nations. Nor does the name of those ancient governments, nor the people who lived under them, remain on the face of the earth in the present day! They are only found in the page of history. This spiritual kingdom shall never be transferred, and the name of its subjects shall never be changed.

5. It shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms that is, the preaching and influence of Christianity shall destroy idolatry universally. They did so in the Roman empire, which was the epitome of all the rest. But this was not done by the sword, nor by any secular influence. Christians wage no wars for the propagation of Christianity for the religion of Christ breathes nothing but love to God, and peace and good will to all mankind. The sum of the Gospel is contained in these words of Christ: "God so loved the world that he gave his only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on him should not perish, but have everlasting life - for the Son of man is not come to destroy men's lives, but to save."

For his own cause, God fights in the course of his providence. He depresses one, and exalts another but permits not his own people to join with him in the infliction of judgments. It is by his own Spirit and energy that his kingdom is propagated and maintained in the world and by the same his enemies are confounded. All false religions, as well as falsified and corrupted systems of Christianity, have had recourse to the sword, because they were conscious they had No God, no influence but what was merely human.

6. The kingdom of Christ breaks in pieces and consumes all other kingdoms that is, it destroys every thing in every earthly government where it is received, that is opposed to the glory of God and the peace and happiness of men, and yet in such a way as to leave all political governments unchanged. No law or principle in Christianity is directed against the political code of any country. Britain is Christian without the alteration of her Magna Charta or her constitution. All the other empires, kingdoms, and states on the face of the earth, may become Christian and preserve their characteristic forms of political government. If there be in them any thing hostile to Christianity, and the peace and happiness of the subject, the Wind of God - the Divine Spirit, will fan or winnow it away, so that no more place shall be found for it. But this he will do in the way of his ordinary providence and by his influence on their hearts, dispose truly Christianized rulers to alter or abrogate whatever their laws contain inimical to the mild sway of the scepter of Christ.

7. And it shall stand for ever. This is its final characteristic. It shall prevail over the whole world it shall pervade every government it shall be the basis of every code of laws it shall be professed by every people of the earth: "The Gentiles shall come to its light, and kings to the brightness of its rising." The whole earth shall be subdued by its influence, and the whole earth filled with its glory.

8. The actual constitution, establishment, and maintenance of this kingdom belong to the Lord yet he will use human means in the whole administration of his government. His Word must be distributed, and that word must be Preached. Hence, under God, Bibles and Missionaries are the grand means to be employed in things concerning his kingdom. Bibles must be printed, sent out, and dispersed Missionaries, called of God to the work, and filled with the Divine Spirit, must be equipped, sent out, and maintained therefore expenses must necessarily be incurred. Here the people now of the kingdom must be helpers. It is The duty, therefore, of every soul professing Christianity to lend a helping hand to send forth the Bible and wherever the Bible is sent, to send a missionary, full of faith and of the Holy Ghost, to enforce its truths.

9. The duration of the kingdom of the mountain upon earth. The world has now lasted nearly six thousand years, and a very ancient tradition has predicted its termination at the close of that period. Its duration has been divided into three grand periods, each comprising two thousand years, which should be closed by a period without terminating limits and these have been supposed to have their types in the six days' work of the creation, and the seventh day, called Sabbath or rest.

1. There have been two thousand years from the creation without any written revelation from God this was called the patriarchal dispensation.

2. There have been two thousand years under the law, where there has been a written revelation, a succession of prophets, and a Divine ecclesiastical establishment. This has been termed the Mosaic dispensation.

3. One thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine years have passed since the true epoch of the nativity of our blessed Lord and this is called the Gospel or Christian dispensation, which is now within one hundred and seventy-one years of closing its two thousand!

According to the ancient tradition there were,

1. Two thousand years void that is, without the law.

2. Two thousand years under the law. And,

3. Two thousand years under the Messiah.

And at the termination of the third the endless Sabbath should commence. The comments on this ancient tradition go on to state, that at the termination of each day's work of the creation it was said, The evening and the morning were the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth day but when the Sabbath is introduced, and God is said to rest from his work, and to have hallowed this day, there is no mention of the evening and the morning being the seventh day. That is left without termination and therefore a proper type of the eternal Sabbath, that rest which remains for the people of God.

And are we indeed so near that time when the elements of all things shall be dissolved by fervent heat when the heavens shall be shrivelled up like a scroll, and the earth and all it contains be burned up? Is the fifth empire, the kingdom of the stone and the kingdom of the mountain, so near its termination? Are all vision and prophecy about to be sealed up, and the whole earth to be illuminated with the bright beams of the Sun of righteousness? Are the finally incorrigible and impenitent about to be swept off the face of the earth by the besom of destruction while the righteous shall be able to lift up their heads with ineffable joy, knowing their final redemption is at hand? Are we so near the eve of that period when "they who turn many to righteousness shall shine as the stars for ever and ever?" What sort of persons should we then be in all holy conversation and godliness? Where is our zeal for God? Where the sounding of our bowels over the perishing nations who have not yet come under the yoke of the Gospel? Multitudes of whom are not under the yoke, because they have never heard of it and they have not heard of it, because those who enjoy the blessings of the Gospel of Jesus have not felt (or have not obeyed the feeling) the imperious duty of dividing their heavenly bread with those who are famishing with hunger, and giving the water of life to those who are dying of thirst. How shall they appear in that great day when the conquests of the Lion of the tribe of Judah are ended when the mediatorial kingdom is delivered up unto the Father, and the Judge of quick and dead sits on the great white throne, and to those on his left hand says, "I was hungry, and ye gave me no meat I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink." I say, How shall they appear who have made no exertions to tell the lost nations of the earth the necessity for preparing to meet their God and showing them the means of doing it, by affording them the blessings of the Gospel of the grace of God? Let us beware lest the stone that struck the motley image, and dashed it to pieces, fall on us, and grind us to powder.

Bibles are sent out by millions into heathen countries but how shall they hear without a preacher and how shall they understand the things which they read, unless those who know the things of God teach them? Let us haste, then, and send missionaries after the Bibles. God is mightily at work in the earth: let us be workers together with him, that we receive not the grace of God in vain. He that giveth to those poor (emphatically poor, for they are without God in the world, and consequently without the true riches) lendeth unto the Lord and let him look what he layeth out, and it shall be paid unto him again. For "he that converteth a sinner from the error of his ways shall save a soul from death, and hide a multitude of sins." God does not call on us to shake hands with all secular, social, and family comfort, and bid farewell to the whole and go to the heathen with the glad tidings of great joy: but he loudly calls on us to assist in sending those who, in the true spirit of sacrifice, the love of Christ constraining them, say, "Here are we! O Lord, send us." Let these servants of God run to and fro that by their ministry knowledge may be increased. Amen.

The Mistake of the Roman Government

At the beginning of the revolt, the Roman government saw Spartacus and his followers as nothing more than a ragtag bunch of hooligans. No threat whatsoever to the almighty Roman Empire. But, as is so common even today, the government made a big mistake. They refused to send a large military force, deeming it unnecessary and wasteful and assumed that the local police would be able to handle it.

They were wrong, and it's this mistake that allowed Spartacus's revolt to become so successful. Spartacus's military mind and warrior training stopped the small forces from overtaking him, and his band of rebels grew larger and larger.

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1 , Eusebius , Vita Conslanlini (ed. Heikel , I. A. , GCS, Eusebius I, Leipzig 1902 ), iv. 39. Compare iv. 37-8 and iii. 54 .Google Scholar

2 Harnack , Adolf von , Mission and Expansion of Christianity, during the First Three Centuries , trans. Moffatt , J. , London 1908 , ii. 465 .Google Scholar Von Harnack was thinking in particular of the situation in Asia Minor.

3 For evidence, however, that Constantine was already granting Christianity a privileged position among the religions of the empire from 313 onwards, see Barnes , T. D. , Constantine and Eusebius , Cambridge, Mass . 1981 , 50 –3Google Scholar .

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