T-90 Main Battle Tank (Russia)

T-90 Main Battle Tank (Russia)


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T-90 Main Battle Tank (Russia)

The T-90 is not a new tank but an evolution of the T-72 design and offers little in the way of an advantage over the tanks entering service in the last years of the Soviet Union. At the beginning of the 1990s when the Soviet Union collapsed, two tanks were still in production: the T-80U developed by the Spetsmash Design Bureau in Leningrad and the T-72B which had been developed by the Vagonka Design Bureau at the Uralvagon plant in Nizhni Tagil. The T-80U was the more sophisticated of the two with a superior fire-control system and a gas turbine engine. This was reflected in the price tag of the two tanks, the T-80U being offered for export for $2 million and the T-72 for about $1.2 million. The imposition of 'defence sufficiency' during the Gorbachev era and then the collapse of the Soviet Union had a catastrophic effect on the Russian tank industry. The Russian Federation could no longer keep on procuring two types of main battle tank, but selecting one over another would be catastrophic for the loosing city and so continued buying both tanks in small numbers. The two plants kept on producing tanks in the hope of further orders from the Russian Army or a large export order. Nizhni Tagil started upgrading the T-72B with the third generation of Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armour (which has already been added to the T-80U) developed by NII Stali (Scientific Research Institute for Steel). This produced the T-72BM, which saw limited service in the Chechen conflict. While the T-72 has traditionally been fitted with less sophisticated fire controls than the T-80 (as it was intended for second-line Soviet units and political allies) the Vagonka Design Bureau decided to make the T-72 much more competitive against the T-80 by adding the T-80's fire control system. The result was the T-72BU, although it was decided to rename the tank the T-90 to distance it from the T-72A that had performed poorly in both the Gulf War and to a lesser extent the Chechen conflict. Due to the T-80 having a bad reputation for high fuel consumption, a short engine life and the losses they suffered in Chechnya (although this was due to poor tactics and crew training) the decision was taken to gradually move over to the T-90 with production of T-80Us continuing for a period of time to prevent economic hardship and to generate export orders. The tank itself mounts an improved T-72BM turret (which has a NII Stali version of Chobham armour) and Kontakt-5 appliqué. It has a derivative of the T-80U 1A45 fire control system, the 1A45T, which includes the new 1V528-1 digital ballistic computer. It mounts the new 2A46M-1 (or D-81TM) tank gun, as used by the T-80, and can fire the new generation of tank gun ammunition developed by the Mechanical Engineering Research Institute in Moscow, and the AT-11 Sniper missile. The T-90 uses a modified version of the commander's cupola, and also mounts the Shtora-1 defence suite, developed by VNII Transmash in St Pertersburg in co-operation with Elers-Elektron in Moscow. The T-90 operates the V-84MS multi-fuel diesel engine, which is an upgrade of the engine from the T-72BM but has the same power output (840hp). This means the T-90 is slightly more sluggish (its two tons heavier) but there are upgrades available, the V-92 (950hp) and V-96 (1,100 hp) diesel engines from the Chelyabinsk engine plant. An enhanced T-90S has recently been revealed and offered for export to potential Asian customers. It features an air conditioning system, a thermal gunnery sight and a 1,000 hp B-92C2 diesel engine which lifts performance to a maximum road speed of 65km/h. India has expressed an interest in buying the T-90 as Pakistan has recently bought 320 T-80UDs from the Ukraine.

Hull length: 6.86m. Hull width: 3.37m. Weight: 46,500kg (combat); Height: 2.23m. Crew: 3. Ground Clearance: 0.47m. Ground pressure: 0.87kg/sq.cm Max speed: 60km/h. Max range (internal fuel): 500km on road. Armament: 125mm smoothbore main gun, 1 x 7.62mm MG coaxial, 1 x 12.7mm anti-aircraft MG.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Foss, Christopher. 'Enhanced T-90S targets Asian market' in Jane's Defence Weekly, 31 May 2000, p. 37.
Zaloga, Steven. 'T-90: the standard of Russian expediency' in Jane's Intelligence Review, February 1997, pp. 58 - 64.

T-90 Main Battle Tank (Russia) - History

T-95 is the common informal designation of a Russian fourth generation [2] tank that was under development at Uralvagonzavod before being cancelled in May 2010.

The project was first reported in 1995 [ citation needed ] and announced by Russian official sources in 2000, but no concrete data had been released. It was due to be introduced in 2009, but was repeatedly delayed. The Russian government terminated its involvement in the project in May 2010 and withdrew all funding. [3]

Most information about this tank was speculative. The design was presumably a significant departure from the Soviet-era tanks currently in service. In particular, it was expected to have a new hydropneumatic suspension with adaptive features, and the entire crew was apparently going to be placed in a sealed compartment inside the hull, isolated from other tank components. [4]

T-95 was a name given to the tank by media it was not an official name. [4] According to published sources, development of a new tank called "Object 195" began at the Uralvagonzavod design bureau in the early 1990s. [4]

The prototype tank was announced by the Russian Minister of Defense Igor Sergeyev in 2000. On July 10, 2008 the Russian government announced that the Russian armed forces would start receiving new-generation tanks superior to the T-90 main battle tank after 2010. "The T-90 MBT will be the backbone of the armored units until 2025. T-72's and T-80's will not be modernized and will be eventually replaced by new-generation tanks, which will start entering service after 2010", a news conference with Sergei Mayev, head of the Federal Service for Defence Contracts. [5]

On the first day of Russian Defence Expo 2010 in Nizhny Tagil, The Director of the Federal Service for Military-Technical Cooperation of the Russian Federation, Konstantin Biryulin, announced to the press that the Russian state monopoly Federal Service for Defense Contracts was unveiling the prototype of new battle tank called "Object 195" (T-95) in a private showing to selected VIP guests, though the tank has yet to be seen by journalists or confirmed publicly by any of the participants. [6]

However, in May 2010, deputy defense minister and chief of armaments Vladimir Popovkin announced that a number of programs for development of new armor and artillery weapons would be canceled. [7] The main victim is the Object 195 program. Popovkin said the military will focus on modernization of the T-90 instead. [8] [9] The reason given for this was the fact that the T-95 was already obsolete, as it had been in development for almost two decades, but some sources speculated it had more to do with the recent reduction in Russia's military budget, requiring substantial cuts across the board. [3] [8]

Popovkin confirmed this decision in a June 2010 Interview, stating that Russia would no longer fund and was not going to buy the T-95, but that Uralvagonzavod might continue to work on the tank without government support. In early July 2010, as reported by "Ural Information Bureau" : the Minister of Industry and Science, Sverdlovsk region, Alexander Petrov said that Uralvagonzavod would soon finalize a T-95 prototype, entirely independently. However without state funding or export permits, the company would be unable to proceed to production. [10]


The birth of a legend

The T-90 is one of the most easily recognizable tanks on the market. It is called the “flying tank” for its dynamism and capable suspension that can easily support huge loads as the tank speeds through rough off-road terrain. Its development, by the Urals Transport Engineering Design Bureau (UKBTM) in the late 1980s and early 1990s, was a milestone both in Russian and in world tank-building.

T-90A tanks rehearsing in Moscow for the 71st-anniversary parade of Victory in the Great Patriotic War. (Photo: Sputnik)

Many believe the T-90 is nothing more than a modernized T-72B on which the T-90 is based. Originally, the T-90 was, in fact, developed as an in-depth modernization of its predecessor and the specifications even referred to it as an “upgraded T-72B.” But it was introduced into service as the T-90 in 1992, and for a reason, since the designers used only the overall dimensions of the body and the turret and the tank loader. At the same time, the number of innovations and development work put into the T-90 easily allow it to be classified as a new combat vehicle.


Russia’s T-90A Main Battle Tank: All the Makings of a Killer

Originally developed as the export version of the Russian T-90 main battle tank (MBT), which first entered production in 1992, the T-90S was also adopted by the Russian Armed Forces as the T-90A. This MBT was a further development of the Soviet Red Army’s T-72.

Manufactured by Uralvagonzavod in Nizhny Tagil, Russia, the T-90 had its origins in the Soviet-era program, which was aimed to develop a new MBT that could replace the T-64, T-72 and T-80 series.

An updated version was developed for export, and in early 2001 the Indian military signed a contract to acquire 310 of the new T-90S models. In the end, 124 were fully completed in Russia, while according to Army-Technology, were delivered in a “knocked down” form for final assembly in India. The first batch of the modernized T-90 tanks arrived in India in January 2004 and the new model was dubbed “Bhishma.” The tanks were outfitted with the Russian-built Shtora self-protection system, along with Catherine thermal imagers from Thales of France and Peleng of Belarus. An additional 1,000 T-90S MBTs were also produced through 2020 under license in India.

Apparently, Moscow liked what it saw in the improved T-90 export version and adopted the model for its own armed forces. As of late 2007, it was estimated that the Russian Army had acquired around 200 of the T-90A versions.

Well Armed and Armored

The armaments of the T-90S includes a 125mm 2A45M smoothbore cannon that is stabilized in two axes and fitted with a thermal sleeve. This allows the gun tube to be replaced or repaired without dismantling the inside of the turret. The main gun can fire a range of ammunition including APDS (Armour Piercing Discarding Sabot), HEAT (high-explosive anti-tank), and HE-FRAG (high-explosive fragmentation), as well as 9M119 Refleks (NATO designation AT-11 Sniper) anti-tank guided missile system. The missiles have a range of 100m to 4,000m. Additionally, the gun can fire shrapnel projectiles with time fuses.

The T-90S is equipped with a 1A4GT integrated fire control system (IFCS). Secondary weaponry includes a 7.62 PKT machine gun along with a 12.7mm air defense machine gun. The crew members are also provided 5.45mm AKS-74 assault rifles.

The T-90A lives up to the “armored vehicle” moniker as it is fitted with both convention plating and explosive reactive armor. As with the Indian versions, the T-90 is equipped with the Shtora-1 system, which features an infrared jammer, a laser warning system with four laser warning receivers, and a grenade discharging system. The MBT is also outfitted with NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) protection equipment.

The original T-90’s powerplant was a V-94 12-cylinder diesel-fueled engine, which provided 840 hp. The system has been upgraded to the V-92 12-cylinder diesel series that upped the horsepower to 960 while the latest T-90s are outfitted with the V-96 12-cylinder powerplant, which provides a massively upgraded 1,250 hp. The maximum speed is 40 miles per hour and the tank has a range of 430 miles.

While the T-90 was developed over 30 years ago, it remains a versatile and capable tank. It has proven itself in numerous conflicts in the War of Dagestan, the War in Donbas, and the Syrian Civil War. T-90s were even used in last year’s Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, proving it is well suited to the modern battlefield. Although, the T-14 Armata tank is coming.


Contents

The T-90 has its origins in a Soviet-era program aimed at developing a single replacement for the T-64, T-72 and T-80 series of main battle tanks. The T-72 platform was selected as the basis for the new generation of tank owing to its cost-effectiveness, simplicity and automotive qualities. The Kartsev-Venediktov Design Bureau from Nizhny Tagil was responsible for the design work and prepared two parallel proposals—the Object 188, which was a relatively simple upgrade of the existing T-72B tank (Object 184), and the far more advanced Object 187—only vaguely related to the T-72 series and incorporating major improvements to the hull and turret design, armor, powerplant and armament. Development work was approved in 1986 and the first prototypes were completed by 1988. The vehicles resulting from the Object 187 program have not been declassified to this date, but it was the lower risk Object 188 upgrade that would be approved for series production as the T-72BU. [9]

The T-72BU was officially accepted into service on 5 October 1992 by the Russian Ministry of Defence and simultaneously renamed as the T-90 for marketing and propaganda purposes aimed at distancing the new type from existing T-72 variants. [10]

The principal upgrade in the T-90 is the incorporation of a slightly modified form of the T-80U's more sophisticated 1A45T Irtysh fire control system and an upgraded V-84MS multi-fuel engine developing 830 hp (620 kW). The T-90 was manufactured at the Uralvagonzavod factory in Nizhny Tagil, with low-level production being carried out since 1993 and virtually ceasing towards the end of the 1990s for the native market. Less than 200 T-90 tanks were delivered to the Russian Ground Forces before production was resumed in 2005 of an upgraded version.

By September 1995, some 107 T-90 tanks had been produced, located in the Siberian Military District. [11]

Facing tapering domestic orders and with the permanent closure of the last turret casting line in the former USSR, owned by Azovstal in Mariupol, Ukraine, [ citation needed ] the designers at Uralvagonzavod together with experts from NII Stali (Scientific Research Institute of Steel) using trials data obtained from the Soviet-era, created a new, welded turret to offer further improvement and attract foreign buyers for the T-90. India signaled interest in the T-90 in response to Pakistan's acquisition of 320 Ukrainian T-84 tanks, which was an intuitive decision considering India held rights to fully manufacture the T-72M1 in Avadi, with production being easily adapted to assemble the T-90.

The first 42 complete Indian tanks were delivered in 2001 and were designated T-90S (Object 188S), still equipped with the older cast turrets of the early series (this exhausted the remaining stocks of cast turrets warehoused at Nizhny Tagil) and powered by the V-84 engine making 840 hp (618 kW). This was followed up next year with delivery of 82 vehicles, now equipped with the new welded turrets and the V-92S2 engine, generating 1,000 hp (735 kW). The initial contract stipulated the following batch of 186 tanks—now officially called the Bhishma—to be completed in India from Russian-supplied kits, and then gradually replaced with domestically manufactured parts, but the low rate of domestic Indian production compelled the Indian authorities to place an additional order for 124 complete vehicles in 2007 from Uralvagonzavod.

In 2005 the Russian army resumed delivery of the T-90, requesting the "original" specification for the vehicle with a cast turret. But with the new order numbering a paltry 14 tanks, and the large capital investment required to set up production of new cast turrets, the Russian Ministry of Defence agreed on a new configuration very close to the Indian T-90S, which was expeditiously accepted into service without any trials as the Object 188A1 or T-90A. [12] That same year saw delivery of an additional 18 new tanks - enough to equip approximately five tank platoons. These new Russian tanks were powered by the V-92S2 engine, carried a T01-K05 Buran-M gunner's sight (passive-active night-vision channel with an EPM-59G Mirage-K matrix and a maximum observation distance of 1,800 m) and were protected by the most recent Kontakt-5 reactive armor with 4S22 explosive tiles.

The years 2006-2007 saw the delivery of 31 T-90A tanks each, now fitted with entirely passive ESSA main gunner's sights supplied by Peleng in Belarus and using the 2nd-generation thermal camera Catherine-FC from Thales, as well as improved 4S23 ERA tiles. The joint venture established on the basis of JSC Volzhsky Optical and Mechanical Plant" (VOMZ) and Thales Optronics, produced Catherine-FC thermal imaging devices, which were further used to develop "ESSA", "PLISA" and "SOSNA-U" sighting systems produced for the Russian armoured vehicles, including T-72B3 tanks and export versions of T-90S (exported to India, Algeria and Azerbaijan). Since 2012, Russia was able to produce 3rd-generation Catherine-XP cameras based on QWIP matrix technology. [13]

In 2012, the Russian-made commander combined sample supervisory-sighting system "T01-K04DT/Agat-MDT" was presented to the public at the International Forum Engineering Technologies 2012. According to Krasnogorsky Zavod plant, Agat-MDT has the ability to install (for further modernization) in the sight the newly developed domestic UPF format 640×512 by 15 microns, which makes possible in the future to extend the range of target identification at night to 3.5 — 4.0 km without modifications to the sight. [14]

In 2016, the Krasnogorsk plant finished testing the Irbis-K night-vision sighting system for the T-80U and T-90, with first deliveries planned for 2017. Completion of the Irbis-K, the first Russian-produced mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) matrix thermal sight, addressed a disadvantage of Russian tanks relative to their Western counterparts. The Irbis-K is capable of identifying targets at ranges up to 3,240 meters during both day and night. [15]

The Russian-made thermal imaging device not only meant that Russian tanks would no longer need to be equipped with foreign parts, but it also meant that complete tank modernization was cheaper. The new tank gunner’s heat-vision sight Irbis-K and the commander’s combined sighting and observation system Agat-MDT can be supplied to T-90 upgraded version (T-90M), replacing ESSA system with Catherine-FC thermal imager from Thales.

In 2007, there were about 334 T-90 tanks of various types serving in the Russian Ground Forces' 5th Guards Tank Division, stationed in the Siberian Military District, and seven T-90 tanks assigned to the marines. [16] Since 2008, the Russian army has received 62 tanks annually, suspending orders in 2011.

Russia is developing the new Armata Universal Combat Platform (also known as the T-14 Armata) to be ready for use by 2016 [ needs update ] . It is expected to employ a more powerful engine, improved armor, main gun and autoloader, with ammunition storage separated from the crew. [17]

Deliveries of upgraded T-90M tanks started in April 2020 to the Guards Tank Army of the RF Western Military District. The T-90M ‘Proryv’ has received a principally new turret, the 2A46M-5 gun, and a more powerful engine. The Proryv is outfitted with a new multi-channel sighting system that allows employing weapons at any time of day or night and it can exchange data with other vehicles in real time. [18] A new batch was delivered in March 2021. [19]

An early variant of the export-oriented T-90S allegedly saw combat action during the 1999 Chechen invasion of Dagestan instead of being delivered to India. According to Moscow Defense Brief, one vehicle was hit by seven RPG anti-tank rockets but remained in action. The journal concluded that with regular equipment, the upgraded T-90 seems to be the best protected Russian tank, especially with the implementation of Shtora-1 and Arena defensive systems. [18]

During the War in Donbas in the summer of 2014, elements of the Russian 136th Guards Motor Rifle Brigade equipped with T-90A tanks conducting operations in Luhansk Oblast of Ukraine were identified in social media posts, and locations of their photographs georeferenced by open-source investigators. [20] [21]

The T-90A was deployed to Syria in 2015 to support the Russian involvement in the Syrian Civil War. [22] In early February 2016, Syrian Army forces began using T-90As in combat. [ citation needed ] In late February, a video was leaked on the internet which showed a T-90 survive a direct frontal turret hit by a TOW missile in Aleppo. [23]

On 15 September 2020 a Russian T-90 was accidentally hit by an anti-tank guided missile during exercises held in Russia's Astrakhan region causing serious damage to the vehicle. [24]

Azerbaijan used their T-90S tanks during the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. One T-90 was damaged and captured by Armenian forces. [25] [26]

India Edit

In 2001, India purchased 310 T-90S tanks from Russia, of which 124 were delivered complete (42 featured the early cast turrets seen on Russian tanks) and 186 were to be assembled from kits delivered in various stages of completion with an emphasis on shifting production to domestic means. The T-90 was selected because it is a direct development of the T-72 that India already manufactures with 60% parts commonality with T-90, simplifying training and maintenance. India opted to acquire the T-90 in response to numerous delays in the production of its own domestically developed Arjun main battle tank, and to counter Pakistani deployment of the Ukrainian-made T-80 tanks in 1995–97.

These T-90S tanks were made by Uralvagonzavod and the engines were delivered by Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant. The Indian tanks however omit the Shtora-1 passive electronic countermeasure system which was deemed obsolete.

A follow-on contract, worth $800 million, was signed on October 26, 2006, for another 330 T-90S "Bhishma" MBTs that were to be manufactured in India by Heavy Vehicles Factory at Avadi, Tamil Nadu.

The T-90S Bhishma (named after the guardian warrior in the Mahabharata) is a vehicle tailored for Indian service, improving upon the T-90S, and developed with assistance from Russia and France. The tanks are equipped with the French Thales-built Catherine-FC thermal sights, [27] and use Russian Kontakt-5 K-5 explosive reactive armoured plates. [28] and Kontakt-5 ERA in addition to the primary armor which consists of laminated plates and ceramic layers with high tensile properties. The new welded turrets first developed for the Indian T-90S Bhishma have more advanced armour protection than the early cast turrets.

In April 2008, the Indian Army sent a request for proposal to Rafael, BAE Systems, Raytheon, Rosoboronexport, Saab, and IBD Deisenroth Engineering for an active protection system for the T-90S Bhishma. [29] The contract is expected to be worth US$270 million. Saab's LEDS-150 won the contract in January 2009. [30]

A third contract, worth $1.23 billion, was signed in December 2007 for 347 upgraded T-90Ms, the bulk of which will be licence-assembled by HVF. The Army hopes to field a force of over 21 regiments of T-90 tanks and 40 regiments of modified T-72s. The Indian Army would begin receiving its first T-90M main battle tank in completely knocked-down condition from Russia’s Nizhny Tagil-based Uralvagonzavod JSC by the end of 2009. [31] [32]

The T-90M features the 'Kaktus K-6' bolted explosive reactive armour (ERA) package on its frontal hull and turret-top (the T-90S has 'Kontakt-5' ERA), is fitted with an enhanced environmental control system supplied by Israel's Kinetics Ltd for providing cooled air to the fighting compartment, has additional internal volume for housing the cryogenic cooling systems for new-generation thermal imagers like the THALES-built Catherine-FC thermal imager (operating in the 8–12 micrometre bandwidth). [31] In all, India plans to have 2,080 T-90 tanks in service by 2020.

The first batch of 10 licence built T-90M was inducted into the Indian army on August 24, 2009. These vehicles were built at the Heavy Vehicles Factory at Avadi, Tamil Nadu.

A ₹ 10,000 crore (US$1.4 billion) purchase of 354 new T-90SM tanks for six tank regiments for the China border was approved [33] in 2012 which would take the total number of T-90 tanks in the Indian Army's inventory to 2011 and with a total of nearly 4500 tanks (T-90 and variants, T-72 and Arjun MBT) in active service, the world's third largest operator of tanks.

India plans to have 21 tank regiments of T-90s by 2020, with 45 combat tanks and 17 training and replacement tanks per regiment, for 62 total each. [34]

On 17 September 2013, India's Defence Ministry approved the production of 235 T-90S tanks under Russian licence for $1 billion. [35]

On 11 November 2019, India announced that Heavy Vehicles Factory will produce 464 T-90S MBTs. [36]

Other Edit

In 2005, deliveries began for an initial order of 185 tanks for Algeria. These are known as the T-90SA ("A" is an acronym for Algeria).

The Cyprus House Defence Committee approved funds in January 2009 for the purchase of 41 Russian-built T-90 tanks. The money was included as part of the 2009 defence budget. Cyprus already operates the Russian-made T-80 tank. [37] In March 2010 it was reported that Cyprus had opted for 41 additional T-80s instead of purchasing T-90s. [38]

Anonymous Venezuelan defence sources said that president Hugo Chavez "wants to replace his army's obsolete AMX-30 main battle tanks with between 50 and 100 Russian-built T-90 main battle tanks," according to an October 2008 article by analyst Jack Sweeney. [39] In September, 2009 a deal was announced for 92 T-72s only. [40] Saudi Arabia was reported, in July 2008, by Russian daily Kommersant to be in negotiations to buy 150 T-90 tanks. [41] Lebanese Defence Minister Elias El Murr met with Russian Defence Minister Anatoly Serdyukov in December 2008, when they discussed the possibility of a transfer of military equipment including T-90 tanks. [42] [43]

In February 2010, an arms deal was signed between Libya and Russia. Details of the sale were not immediately released, but a Russian diplomat stated that Libya had wanted 20 fighter planes, air defence systems, and may also be interested in purchasing "several dozen" T-90s, and modernising a further 140 T-72s. However, after Libya's crackdown on anti-government protesters in early 2011, the United Nations enacted an international arms embargo on Libya resulting in the cancellation of Russian arms deals. [44] [45]

In April 2013, Rosoboronexport requested for the entry of the T-90S in an upcoming tender by the Peruvian Army for main battle tanks. [46] Peru sought to acquire between 120 and 170 tanks to replace its aging T-55 tanks. The T-90 was tested against the M1A1 Abrams from the United States, the Leopard 2A4 offered from the Spanish Army, Leopard 2A6s formerly operated by the Dutch Army, and T-64s and T-84s offered by Ukraine. By September 2013, only the T-90S, the Russian T-80, the Ukrainian T-84, and American M1A1 were still competing. [47] On 19 September 2013, a T-90S was demonstrated to the Commander-in-Chief of the Peruvian Land Forces and 300 officers. During the day, the tank's combat and running capabilities were shown. At night, the accuracy of all weapons at different ranges while stationary and on the move were shown under limited visibility and mountainous terrain conditions. A Peruvian T-55 driver was briefed for 5 minutes about the controls, then was able to move and operate the T-90S, demonstrating the commonality of the two vehicles. [48] Russia pushed for the sale of 110 T-90S tanks. [49] [ needs update ]

The People's Army of Vietnam is reportedly interested in buying the T-90MS to keep its military capability in step with its neighbours. [50] Vietnam and Iraq signed contracts for at least 150 T-90S/SK tanks in 2016. [51]

In December 2015, the commander of the Iranian Army Ground Forces said that Iran planned to buy Russian-developed T-90 tanks, given that UN sanctions that had targeted the Iranian military were lifted. [ citation needed ] However, two months later Iran announced it was no longer interested in buying the T-90 from Russia, instead deciding to develop a similar model domestically called the "Karrar". In July 2016 Iranian media showed a short clip referring to new domestically produced tank called "Karrar" that had a similar appearance to T-90MS. [52]

Armament Edit

The T-90's main armament is the 2A46M 125mm smoothbore tank gun. This is a highly modified version of the Sprut anti-tank gun, and is the same gun used as the main armament on the T-80-series tanks. It can be replaced without dismantling the inner turret and is capable of firing armour-piercing fin-stabilised discarding sabot (APFSDS), high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT-FS), and high explosive fragmentation (HE-FRAG) ammunition, as well as 9M119M Refleks anti-tank guided missiles. The Refleks missile has semi-automatic laser beam-riding guidance and a tandem hollow-charge HEAT warhead. It has an effective range of 100 m to 6 km, and takes 17.5 seconds to reach maximum range. Refleks can penetrate about 950 millimetres (37 in) of steel armour and can also engage low-flying air targets such as helicopters. [53]

The NSV 12.7mm (12.7×108) remotely controlled anti-aircraft heavy machine gun can be operated from within the tank by the commander and has a range of 2 km and a cyclic rate of fire of 700–800 rounds per minute with 300 rounds available (the NSV was replaced by the Kord heavy machine gun in the late 1990s). The PKMT 7.62mm (7.62×54mmR) coaxial machine gun weighs about 10.5 kg while the ammunition box carries 250 rounds (7,000 rounds carried) and weighs an additional 9.5 kg. [53]

Like other modern Russian tanks the 2A46M in the T-90 is fed by an automatic loader which removes the need for a manual loader in the tank and reduces the crew to 3 (commander, gunner, and driver). The autoloader can carry 22 ready-to-fire rounds in its carousel and can load a round in 5–8 seconds. [53] It has been suggested that the automatic loaders on modern T-90 tanks have been modified to take advantage of newer ammunition such as the 3BM-44M APFSDS, which like the US M829A3 penetrates armour better than the previous shorter rounds. HEAT rounds that can be fired from the 2A46M includes the 3BK21B (with a depleted uranium liner), 3BK29 (with a credited penetration of 800mm RHA equivalency), and the 3BK29M (with a Triple-tandem charge warhead). Additionally the T-90 features the Ainet fuse setting system which allows the tank to detonate 3OF26 HE-FRAG rounds at a specific distance from the tank as determined by the gunners laser rangefinder, improving its performance against helicopters and infantry. [54] Accurate firing range of the HE-Frag-FS 10 km, APFSDS 4 km. [55]

Fire-control system of the T-90 showed the following features of combat shooting during state testing. Heavily armoured targets at ranges of up to 5 km were hit by tank T-90 on the move (up to 30 km/h) with a high probability of hit with the first shot. During state testing made 24 launches of missiles at ranges of 4–5 km and they all hit the target (all missile launches were made by inexperienced professionals). An experienced gunner at speeds of 25 km/h hit 7 real armoured targets located at ranges of 1,500–2,500 m and 54sec. [56] [57]

Fire-control system on the T-90 includes the PNK-4S/SR AGAT day and night sighting system mounted at the commanders station which allows for night time detection of a tank sized target at ranges between 700 and 1100 metres depending on the version of the sight. Early models of the T-90 were equipped with the TO1-KO1 BURAN sight but later models (T-90S) were upgraded to use the ESSA thermal imaging sight, which allows for accurate firing to a range of 5,000–8,000m using the CATHERINE-FC thermal camera produced by Thales Optronique. The gunner is also provided with the 1G46 day sighting system which includes a laser range finder, missile guidance channel and allows tank-sized targets to be detected and engaged at 5 to 8 kilometres (3.1 to 5.0 mi). The driver uses a TVN-5 day and night sight. [53] In 2010, Russia started licensed production of Thales-developed Catherine FC thermal imaging cameras for T-90M tanks, a Russian daily said. [58] These thermal imagers are also present on T-90M "Bhishma" built in India under licence. [31]

In 2012, the Russian-made combined sample of commander supervisory-sighting system T01-K04DT/Agat-MDT was presented to the public. According to Krasnogorsky Zavod (plant), Agat-MDT has the ability to be installed (for further modernization) in the sight of the newly developed domestic UPF format 640×512 by 15 microns, which is possible in the future to extend the range of target identification at night to 3.5 — 4.0 km without sight modifications. [14] In 2016, the Krasnogorsk plant finished testing the Irbis-K night-vision gunner's sighting system for the T-80U and T-90, with first deliveries in 2018. [59] Completion of the Irbis-K, the first Russian-produced mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) matrix thermal sight, will bridge a gap with the leading NATO countries in this area. The Irbis-K is capable of identifying targets at ranges up to 3,240 meters during both day and night. [15]

The Russian-made thermal imaging device not only meant that Russian tanks would no longer need to be equipped with foreign parts, but it also meant that complete tank modernization was cheaper. Furthermore, there will be no decrease in demand for the T-72 and the T-90 in the next few years. The new tank gunner’s heat-vision sight Irbis-K and the commander’s combined sighting and observation system Agat-MDT can be supplied to T-72, T-80 and T-90 upgraded versions (T-72B3M, T-80BVM, T-90M. ), replacing Catherine-FC thermal camera from Thales.


Fire control and observation

The T-90S uses the 1A4GT integrated fire control system (IFCS), which is automatic but features a manual override for the commander. The IFCS contains the gunner’s 1A43 day fire control system, gunner’s TO1-KO1 thermal imaging sight with a target identification range of 1.2km to 1.5km and commander’s PNK-S sight.

A 1G46 day sight / rangefinder with missile guidance channel, 2E42-4 armament stabiliser, 1V528 ballistic computer and DVE-BS wind gauge comprise the gunner’s 1A43 day FCS.

A TKN-4S (Agat-S) day / night sight, which has identification ranges of 800m (day) and 700m (night) are included in the commander’s PNK 4S sight.

The driver is equipped with a TVN-5 infrared night viewer.


A Tank for All Seasons: The Russian T-90MS

The T-90MS’ export focus brings into perspective some of its more controversial design choices.

Here's What You Need To Remember: Clients are already lining up to buy the improved tank, notably armed forces in the Middle East (including Egypt and Kuwait).

Earlier this week, Russian arms manufacturer Uralvagonzavod (UVZ) released a video of their T-90MS battle tank in action.

The footage, aired by the official channel of the Russian Ministry of Defense, depicts some highlights from the T-90MS’ most recent exercise.

The tank moves at high speeds past a grassy plain, before discharging its 125mm cannon with what appears to be good effect on target (GEOT) the clip ends with the T-90MS making its way down an unpaved road.

In a rarity for these types of demonstration videos, the clip is interspersed with technical footage from inside the tank.

The first fifteen seconds capture the targeting module at work, while the latter half shows the gunner operating the tank’s digitized onboard controls.

Why would UVZ go out of their way to highlight the tank’s inner workings? Consider the context.

The T-90MS is a modernized export version of the T-90 main battle tank, Russia’s staple heavy armor solution from the early 1990’s through 2011. Whereas arms exercise footage is typically intended for domestic consumption, UVZ was trying to reach an altogether different audience: foreign buyers.

Thus, the video aims less for entertainment value and more to demonstrate the T-90MS’ technical capabilities to foreign military experts. Footage of the T-90MS’ four, 360° view cameras is hardly exciting for general audiences, but conveys crucial purchasing information to importers.

The T-90MS will be shown next week at IDEX-2019, the largest arms exhibition in the Middle East. To date, Rosoboronexport-- Russia’s arms export agency-- is on the verge of finalizing T-90MS orders with major clients including Egypt and Kuwait. With several contracts nearing completion, the Russians are looking to double down on the T-90MS’ success at IDEX-2019: “There have been many delegations that have gone through pre-contract motions. This tank is potentially our export leader,” said UVZ chief Alexei Zharich.

The T-90MS is also the successor to the T-90’s prior export variant, the T-90S, offering several key iterative improvements. The T-90MS boasts a slightly more powerful 1,130 horsepower V-92S2F diesel engine, improved 3,500-meter thermal imager, digital computer for monitoring topographical conditions, GLONASS navigation integration, and a revised turret bustle. Among the most impactful changes is the inclusion of modular explosive reactive armor (ERA) panels for increased protection against certain kinds of explosive blasts.

The T-90MS’ export focus also brings into perspective some of its more controversial design choices. In a decision likely taken to suppress manufacturing costs, the UVZ has opted to arm the MS with a variant of the Soviet 2A46 smoothbore cannon found on the original T-90, rather than the newer 2A82-1M found on the recent T-90M and Russia’s upcoming, next-generation Armata tank.

Despite these active measures to maintain market competitiveness, the T-90MS will still come in at 4.5 million dollars per unit, a steep increase over the 2.5-3.5 million dollars per unit of its T-90S predecessor. To capture as many segments of the heavy armor market as possible, the Russians will continue offering the T-90S and even the original T-90. Both are still perfectly viable options in medium and low-intensity conflicts, and remain in demand across the world.


T-90 Tank

The T-90 is considered a modern unit, with only the elite Kantemirovskaya and Tamanskaya tank divisions equipped by 2010. Derived from the T-72, the GPO Uralvagonzavod T-90 main battle tank is the most modern tank in the army arsenal. The successor to T-72BM, the T-90 uses the gun and 1G46 gunner sights from T-80U, a new engine, and thermal sights. Protective measures include Kontakt-5 ERA, laser warning receivers, and the SHTORA infrared ATGM jamming system.

The price of a T-90 main battle tank (MBT), manufactured by Russia’s Uralvagonzavod plant is $4-7 million, while the price of a T-72 model is $1-2 million. A Russian tank battalion comprises 31 tanks. In 2008 Uralvagonzavod produced a total of 165 T-90 tanks. Over half of the vehicles were exported, and the remaining tanks replaced some of the T-72s in the Russian Armed Forces.

By 1992 the Russian Defense Ministry announced that it could no longer afford to manufacture two MBTs in parallel. Since both the “quality” T-80U and the cheaper “quantity” T-72B were each being built at one plant, and each plant was critical to the economy of the city it was in, the Government gave small orders to both. Omsk built five T-80Us and Nizhni Tagil 15 T-72s, and both built more against the hope of winning large export orders. Nizhni Tagil had built a few T-72BMs, T-72Bs upgraded with a third generation add-on Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA) called Kontakt-5, which was already in service on T-80U.

To further improve the T-72’s export prospects and its chances of being selected as Russia’s sole production MBT, the T-80U’s more sophisticated fire control system was also added to produce a vehicle designated T-72BU. Finally, since worldwide news coverage during Desert Storm had firmly established the image of the T-72 as a burning Iraqi tank, the new model was renamed T-90.

The Russian Defense Ministry made a selection of a single MBT in 1995. The fighting in Grozny had been shown around the world and the reputation of Russian tanks was sullied. Although many casualties were due to bad tactics and many T-72s were also lost, it was the knocked-out T-80s which made an impression. More had been expected of the “quality” M-80 MBT. This is alleged to have tipped the balance against the T-80 in the selection. The T-80 was already more expensive and its delicate, fuel-hungry turbine engine was still giving problems. In January 1996, Col.-Gen. Aleksandr Galkin, Chief of the Main Armor Directorate of the Ministry of Defense, announced that the T-90 had been selected as the sole Russian MBT.

The T-90 went into low-level production in 1993, based on a prototype designated as the T-88. The T-90 was developed by the Kartsev-Venediktov Design Bureau at the Vagonka Works in Nizhniy Tagil. Initially thought by Western observers to be an entirely new design, the production model is in fact based on the T-72BM, with some added features from the T-80 series. The T-90 features a new generation of armor on its hull and turret. Two variants, the T-90S and T-90E, have been identified as possible export models. Plans called for all earlier models to be replaced with T-90s by the end of 1997, subject to funding availability. By mid-1996 some 107 T-90s had gone into service in the Far Eastern Military District.

Of conventional layout, the T-90 represents a major upgrade to every system in the T-72, including the main gun. The T-90 is an interim solution, pending the introduction of the new Nizhny Tagil MBT which has been delayed due to lack of funding. Produced primarily mainly due to its lower cost, the T-90 it will probably remain in low-rate production to keep production lines open until newer designs become available. Several hundred of these tanks have been produced, with various estimates suggesting that between 100 and 300 are in service, primarily in the Far East.

The T-90 retains the 125-mm 2A46-series main gun of the T-72 and T-80 which is capable of firing APDS, HEAT and HE-FRAG projectiles as well as time-fuzed shrapnel projectiles.

The Refleks 9M119 AT-11 SNIPER laser-guided missile with a hollow-charge warhead is effective against both armored targets and low-flying helicopters. The missile, which can penetrate 700-mm of RHAe out to 4000 meters, gives the T-90 the ability to engage other vehicles and helicopters before they can engage the T-90. The computerised fire control system and laser range-finder, coupled with the new Agave gunner’s thermal sight, permit the T-90 to engage targets while on the move and at night. However, this first generation system is probably not as capable as current Western counterpart systems. The tank is fitted with precision laying equipment and an automatic loader to guarantee a high rate of gun fire. Secondary armament includes a coaxial 7.62mm PKT machine gun and 12.7mm machine gun mount to for air and ground targets.

The T-90 features the low silhouette of the earlier Russian tanks, with a low rounded turret centered on the hull, and is fitted with combined passive and active defenses which make the T-90 one of the best protected main battle tanks in the world. The glacis is covered by second generation explosive reactive armor [ERA] bricks, as is the turret. This ERA gives the turret an angled appearance, with the ERA bricks forming a “clam shell” appearance. ERA bricks on the turret roof provide protection from top-attack weapons.

The T-90 is equipped with the TShU-1-7 Shtora-1 optronic counter measures system which is designed to disrupt the laser target designation and rangefinders of incoming ATGM. The T-90 is also equipped with a laser warning package that warns the tank crew when it is being lased. Shtora-1 is an electro-optical jammer that jams the enemy’s semiautomatic command to line of sight (SACLOS) antitank guided missiles, laser rangefinders and target designators. Shtora-1 is actually a soft kill, or countermeasures system. It is most effective when used in tandem with a hard kill system such as the Arena.

During the International Defense Exposition (IDEX) held in Abu Dhabi in 1995, the system was shown fitted to a Russian MBT. The first known application of the system is the Russian T-90 MBT that entered service in the Russian Army in 1993. Shtora-1 is currently installed on the T-80UK, T-80U, T-84 and T-90 MBTs.

The Shtora-1 system comprises four key components, the electro-optical interface station, which includes a jammer, modulator, and control panel a bank of forward-firing grenade dischargers mounted on either side of the turret that are capable of firing grenades dispensing an aerosol screen a laser warning system with precision and coarse heads and a control system comprising control panel, microprocessor, and manual screen-laying panel. This processes the information from the sensors and activates the aerosol screen-laying system. Two infrared lights, one on each side of the main gun, continuously emit coded pulsed infrared jamming when an incoming ATGM has been detected. Shtora-1 has a field of view of 360-degrees horizontally and -5 to +25-degrees in elevation. It contains 12 aerosol screen launchers and weighs 400kg. The screening aerosol takes less than 3 seconds to form and lasts about 20 seconds. The screen laying range is between 50-70 meters.

The T-90 is powered by the V-84MS 618 kW (840 hp) four-stroke V-12 piston multi-fuel diesel engine, which can also run on T-2, TS-1 kerosene and A-72 benzine. This engine results in a power to weight ratio of only 18.06 hp/ton, considerably less than that of the T-80. The tank crew can prepare fording equipment within 20 minutes to negotiate 5 meter deep water obstacles. The tank is also fitted with the NBC protection system and mounted mineclearing equipment.

T-90 – The first production version.

T-90K – Commander’s version of the T-90, with additional communication (station R-163-50K) and navigation equipment (TNA-4-3).

T-90E – Export version of T-90 MBT.

T-90A – Russian army version with welded turret, V-92S2 engine and ESSA thermal viewer. Sometimes called T-90 Vladimir.

T-90S – Export version of the T-90A. These tanks were made by Uralvagonzavod and were updated with 1,000 hp (750 kW) engines made by Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant. These tanks however do not feature the Shtora-1 passive/active protection system. Sometimes called T-90C (Cyrillic letter es looks like a Latin c). These tanks are found with two different turret armour arrays.

T-90SK – Commander’s version of the T-90S, with additional communication and navigation equipment. It differs in radio and navigation equipment and Ainet remote-detonation system for HEF rounds.

T-90S “Bhishma” – modified T-90S in Indian service.

T-90AM – Latest version of the T-90A. The main features include the modernization of the old turret design, which is equipped with a new advanced fire control system “Kalina” (with integrated combat information and control systems), a new automatic loader and a new upgraded gun 2A46M-5, as well as a remote-controlled anti-aircraft gun “UDP T05BV-1”. The new version also includes the Relikt active protection system instead of the Kontakt-5 active protection system. Other improvements include a new 1,250 PS (920 kW) engine, an enhanced environmental control system and satellite navigation systems.

T-90SM – New modernized (M) version of the export tank T-90S, with a 1130HP engine, a PNM Sosna-U gunner view, a 7.62mm turret UDP T05BV-1 RWS, GLONASS, inertial navigation systems and explosive reactive armour (ERA).


T-90 Main Battle Tank (Russia) - History

The T-90S is the latest development in the T-series of Russian tanks and represents an increase in firepower, mobility and protection. It is manufactured by the Uralvagonzavod Plant in Nizhniy Tagil (Potkin's bureau) of the Russian Federation.

The T-90S is in service with the Russian Army and the Indian Army. In February 2001, the Indian Army signed a contract for 310 T-90S tanks. 124 were completed in Russia and the rest are being delivered in "knocked down/semi-knocked down" form for final assembly in India. The first of these was delivered in January 2004. The locally-assembled tanks are christened "Bhishma". The tanks are fitted with the Shtora self-protection system and thermal imagers from Thales of France and Peleng of Belarus.

In January 2005, it was announced that a further 91 T-90S tanks would be procured for the Russian Army. 31 are due to be delivered in 2006.

In March 2006, Algeria signed a contract for the supply of 180 T-90S tanks from Uralvagonzavod, to be delivered by 2011.

In November 2006, India ordered a further 300 T-90 tanks, to be licence-built by Heavy Vehicle Factory (HVF), Avadi. Deliveries are to begin in 2008.

Derived from the T-72, the GPO Uralvagonzavod T-90 main battle tank is the most modern tank in the Russian Army's arsenal. The successor to T-72BM, the T-90 uses the gun and 1G46 gunner sights from T-80U, a new engine, and thermal sights. Protective measures include Kontakt-5 ERA, laser warning receivers, and the SHTORA infrared ATGM jamming system.

Kontakt-5 is a Russian type of third-generation explosive reactive armour. It is the first type of ERA which is effectively able to defeat modern APFSDS rounds. Introduced on the T-80U tank in 1985, Kontakt-5 is made up of "bricks" of explosive sandwiched between two metal plates. The plates are arranged in such a way as to move sideways rapidly when the explosive detonates. This will force an incoming KE-penetrator or shaped charge jet to cut through more armour than the thickness of the plating itself, since "new" plating is constantly fed into the penetrating body. A KE-penetrator will also be subjected to powerful sideways forces, which might be large enough to cut the rod into two or more pieces. This will significantly reduce the penetrating capabilities of the penetrator, since the penetrating force will be dissipated over a larger volume of armour.

By 1992 the Russian Defense Ministry announced that it could no longer afford to manufacture two MBTs in parallel. Since both the "quality" T-80U and the cheaper "quantity" T-72B were each being built at one plant, and each plant was critical to the economy of the city it was in, the Government gave small orders to both. Omsk built five T-80Us and Nizhni Tagil 15 T-72s, and both built more against the hope of winning large export orders. Nizhni Tagil had built a few T-72BMs, T-72Bs upgraded with a third generation add-on Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA) called Kontakt-5, which was already in service on the T-80U MBT.

Kontakt-5 has been succeeded by the newer Kaktus type, which is currently only seen on prototype tanks such as the T-80UM2 "Chiorny Oriol" (Black Eagle) tank.

To further improve the T-72's export prospects and its chances of being selected as Russia's sole production MBT, the T-80U's more sophisticated fire control system was also added to produce a vehicle designated T-72BU. Finally, since worldwide news coverage during Desert Storm had firmly established the image of the T-72 as a burning Iraqi tank, the new model was renamed T-90.

The Russian Defense Ministry made a selection of a single MBT in 1995. The fighting in Grozny had been shown around the world and the reputation of Russian tanks suffered. Although many casualties were due to bad tactics and many T-72s were also lost, it was the knocked-out T-80s which made an impression. More had been expected of the "quality" T-80 MBT. This is alleged to have tipped the balance against the T-80 in the selection. The T-80 was already more expensive and its delicate, fuel-hungry turbine engine was still giving problems. In January 1996, Col.-Gen. Aleksandr Galkin, Chief of the Main Armor Directorate of the Ministry of Defense, announced that the T-90 had been selected as the sole Russian MBT.

The T-90 went into low-level production in 1993, based on a prototype designated as the T-88. The T-90 was developed by the Kartsev-Venediktov Design Bureau at the Vagonka Works in Nizhniy Tagil. Initially thought by Western observers to be an entirely new design, the production model is in fact based on the T-72BM, with some added features from the T-80 series. The T-90 features a new generation of armor on its hull and turret. Two variants, the T-90S and T-90E, have been identified as possible export models. Plans called for all earlier models to be replaced with T-90s by the end of 1997, subject to funding availability. By mid-1996 some 107 T-90s had gone into service in the Far Eastern Military District.

Of conventional layout, the T-90 represents a major upgrade to every system in the T-72, including the main gun. The T-90 is an interim solution, pending the introduction of the new Nizhny Tagil MBT which has been delayed due to lack of funding. Produced primarily mainly due to its lower cost, the T-90 will probably remain in low-rate production to keep production lines open until newer designs become available. Several hundred of these tanks have been produced, with various estimates suggesting that between 100 and 300 are in service, primarily in the Far East.

The T-90 retains the low silhouette of the earlier Soviet tanks. The glacis is well sloped, and is covered by second generation ERA bricks and a large transverse rib that extends horizontally across the glacis. The driver sits at the front of the hull and has a single piece hatch cover that opens to the right, in front of which is a single wide-angle observation periscope. Integrated fuel cells and stowage containers give a streamlined appearance to the fenders. The tank has a toothed shovel/dozer blade on the front of the hull beneath the glacis. There are attachment points beneath the blade for the KMT-6 mine-clearing plow.

The low, rounded turret is centered on the hull. The commander's cupola is on the right side of the turret the gunner's hatch is on the left side. The 125-mm main gun has a four section removable thermal shield. It has two sections in front of, and two sections to the rear of the mid-tube bore evacuator. A 7.62-mm coaxial machine-gun is mounted to the right of the mantlet. The T-90 mounts two infra-red searchlights on either side of the main armament these are part of the Shtora ATGM defense system. The turret is covered with second generation reactive armor on the frontal arc.

This ERA gives the turret an angled appearance, with the ERA bricks forming a "clam shell" appearance. There are ERA bricks on the turret roof to provide protection from top-attack weapons. There are banks of smoke mortars on either side of the turret. The second generation ERA package, combined with the advanced armor technology, makes the T-90 one of the best protected main battle tanks in the world.

The year 1999 saw the appearance of a new model of T-90, featuring the fully welded turret of the Obiekt 187 experimental MBT instead of the cast design of the original T-90. This new model is called "Vladimir" in honor of T-90 Chief Designer Vladimir Potkin, who died in 1999. It is unknown how this design affects the protection and layout of the turret, and whether the frontal armor package was also extensively redesigned (Source: Vasily Fofanov's Modern Russian Armor Page).

There are at least three different variants of the T-90. The Russians confirmed the existence of an export variant in June 1996 with varying equipment and engine fits, and Russian promotional materials have discussed both the T-90S (or "C" in the sometimes-used Cyrillic non-translation) and the T-90SK command variant. The T-90SK command variant differs in radio and navigation equipment and Ainet remote-detonation system for HEF rounds. The T-90 "Vladimir", with a welded turret, is also referred to as T-90M, but it is not an official designation. The official designation for those tanks were T-90A, or T-90SM. Actually, all production T-90s from 2001 onwards have welded turrets, so it only seems logical to assume that the official designation now is T-90S (or "C") - what is confirmed by the fact that all T-90S MBTs sold to India have welded turrets. There are also occasional references to a T-90E, but these appear to be unsubstantiated.


T-90S Main Battle Tank, firing the 125mm 2A46M smoothbore gun.

The T-90S armament includes one 125mm 2A46M smoothbore gun, stabilized in two axes and fitted with a thermal sleeve. The gun tube can be replaced without dismantling inside the turret. The gun can fire a variety of ammunition including APDS (Armour Piercing Discarding Sabot), HEAT (High Explosive Anti-Tank), HE-FRAG (High Explosive Fragmentation) as well as, the APERS (anti-personnel) ammunition, consisting of shrapnel projectiles with time fuzes. By far the most widely used APERS round is a multi-purpose HE/HE-FRAG/FRAG fin-stabilized round. Its versatility has been lately further increased by introduction of a time-fusing system, Ainet. Other APERS rounds include shrapnel and incendiary, but these are a lot less common.

The 2A46 and 2A46M lines of mainguns (internal designations D-81T, D-81TM) were developed by the Spetstekhnika design bureau in Ekaterinburg (former Sverdlovsk), and are manufactured at the Motovilikha artillery plant in Perm.

The T-90S gun can also fire the 9M119Refleks (NATO designation AT-11 Sniper), or the 9M119M Refleks (NATO designation AT-11 Sniper-B) anti-tank guided missile system. The 9M119 missile comes in two variants: the 9K120 Svir, which is fired by the T-72B, T-72S, and 2A45M antitank gun and the Refleks, which is fired by the T-80B, T-80U, and T-90 main battle tank. The Refleks round is 4 kg heavier and has a 5,000 meter maximum range, whereas the Svir has a 4,000 meter maximum range. The range of the missile is 100m to 4,000m and takes 11.7 sec to reach maximum range. The system is intended to engage tanks fitted with ERA (Explosive Reactive Armour) as well as low-flying air targets such as helicopters, at a range of up to 5km. The missile system fires either the 9M119 or 9M119M missiles which have semi-automatic laser beam riding guidance and a hollow charge warhead. Missile weight is 23.4kg. The gun's automatic loader will feed both ordnance and missiles. Due to high cost of the system, usually only elite regiments shall have those missiles in a loadout.

The Refleks 9M119 AT-11 SNIPER laser-guided missile with a hollow-charge warhead is effective against both armored targets and low-flying helicopters. The missile, which can penetrate 700-mm of RHAe out to 5,000 meters, gives the T-90S the ability to engage other vehicles and helicopters before they can engage the T-90S. The computerized fire control system and laser range-finder, coupled with the new Agave gunner's thermal sight, permit the T-90S to engage targets while on the move and at night. However, this first generation system is probably not as capable as current Western counterpart systems. The tank is fitted with precision laying equipment and an automatic loader to guarantee a high rate of gun fire.

Also fitted is a coaxial 7.62mm PKT machine gun and a 12.7mm air defense machine gun. A 5.45mm AKS-74 assault rifle is carried on a storage rack.

The T-90S has the 1A4GT integrated fire control system (IFCS) which is automatic but with manual override for the commander. The IFCS contains the gunner's 1A43 day fire control system, gunner's TO1-KO1 thermal imaging sight which has a target identification range of 1.2km to 1.5km and commander's PNK-S sight.

The gunner's 1A43 day FCS comprises: 1G46 day sight/rangefinder with missile guidance channel, 2E42-4 armament stabilizer, 1V528 ballistic computer and DVE-BS wind gauge.

The commander's PNK-4S sight includes a TKN-4S (Agat-S) day/night sight which has identification ranges of 800m (day) and 700m (night). The driver is equipped with a TVN-5 infrared night viewer.


T-90S, of the indian Army. The T-90S is one of the best protected MBTs in the world.

The T-90S features the low silhouette of the earlier Russian tanks, with a low rounded turret centered on the hull, and is fitted with combined passive and active defenses which make the T-90S one of the best protected main battle tanks in the world. The glacis is covered by second generation explosive reactive armor [ERA] bricks, as is the turret. This ERA gives the turret an angled appearance, with the ERA bricks forming a "clam shell" appearance. ERA bricks on the turret roof provide protection from top-attack weapons.

The T-90S is equipped with the TShU-1-7 Shtora-1 optronic counter measures system, produced by Electronintorg of Russia, which is designed to disrupt the laser target designation and rangefinders of incoming ATGM. The T-90S is also equipped with a laser warning package that warns the tank crew when it is being lased. Shtora-1 is an electro-optical jammer that jams the enemy's semiautomatic command to line of sight (SACLOS) antitank guided missiles, laser rangefinders and target designators. Shtora-1 is actually a soft kill, or countermeasures system, which is most effective when used in tandem with a hard kill system such as the Arena.


Photos: Lots Of T-90 Main Battle Tanks Supplied By Russia To Syrian Army

The Syrian Military Capabilities blog has released fresh photos of T-90 main battle tanks supplied by Russia to the Syrian army.

More about Russian battle tanks:

Click to see the full-size image

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When the Syrian nation with Russians win this war and stabilize the country, Syrian will become a major military player in the region! They had learned with the toughest lessons, they are the land where the most powerful military of the world pointed their cannons and proxy warriors. They shall prevail and they will be the strongest.

Best wishes from Brazil to Syrian people. You will win this battle!

The Syrian military has been toughened by years of actual, on the ground combat against the murderers supplied by the US and its puppets. They and the Syrian people have sustained horrific losses in terms of lives lost and destruction to their country. Here in the US we are always exposed to the propaganda generated by the Zionist-allied media that the Israelis are the best fighting force in west Asia. That is utter nonsense. They are only good at killing and tormenting Palestinians. Without the massive military and financial support from Uncle Stupid (Sam) they are lost. Greetings from the Big Apple.

Are you retarded the Palestinians are basicly terrorists who want the deaths of every Israeli jew. you know they did beat Syria and Egypt in one war so the must be better than you think

Tá bravo cara ? Olha só a foto :)

Como não ficar nesses tempos? Salve xD

Lol, estava brincando, tem razão, os tempos não são favoráveis!!

yes God willing thank you!!

1:50 Strange, you didn’t include Kaliningrad as part of Russia.

Nor Kosovo as part of Serbia

Use them well…use them, for good!

Use them against Daesh and al Nusra!

And turkey if they have to!

Syrian needs no less then 300 of these tanks just to fend off the next Zionist invasion of their country, and to counter attack and liberate the Syrian-Golan-Heights from the Jewish-Colonialist.
http://ifamericaknew.org/

Israel won the Golan Heights after a war. If Israel and Syria would go to war again and Syrian would win back the Golan Heights, it would be fair. Israel never built anything really in the GH, it´s pretty wild land however it has a precious view, which made it worth taking at the time.

Hitler won Poland after a war, was that right?

Two totally different cases. By the way part of Poland throughout history pas polish then German then polish again then German again and so on.

syria needs bacteriological weapons against israel

If you say so. What Syria needs is more Kurd autonomy, that would be good for everyone and would keep a power balance translated into peace, Shalom.

The Syrian Kurds and government have recently come to some agreements . They already have autonomy , we will find out soon the new agreements . Peace brother .

such form of autonomy will get kurds. but not that type, that kurds can have own army.

Then Assad will have to convince them that in case of danger, they can rely on SAA. Can they rely on SAA?

i am sure they can. also now is happening this.

i know, kurd say, assad did not protect them before isis. but, in taht time assad lost whole east syria, too.

Besides, kurds do not have an army at least not in Syria, what they have are defense units, hardly an army but still quite effective !

dfense units are form of army.
i think, assad should allow for all minorities use aalso their lenguages in offices in towns, villages whera are present at least 30%.

Zyclon B is another possible option as a bug killer.

It seems you are either proposing another genocide or expressing admiration for the first genocide of jews.

I am surprised and offended that the moderater did not block you for this. The same goes for Krupacek

waepons = regular war
KY camps = genocide.

But the Israeli’s have now discovered natural carbon resources under it – so while always militarily valuable – now potentially financially very valuable as well, so Israel will double down and not give it up.

Yes but i doubt when Israel won the Golan during the war that they knew that there was wealth beneath.

Golan Heights has a pool of oil beneath it estimated to be the equal of Saudi Arabia’s . That is why Israel does not want to give it back to Syria .

Why should they, Syria lost the GH in a war. Maybe all americans should give back the states to the various Indian tribes? Part of Germany was polish before WWII, maybe Germany should give it back to Poland etc…

It is called International Law .
And on Poland , that part that was Polish before WWll , was German before WWl .
Israel should stop playing the victim , and stop victimizing , and settle with the Palestinians . The “two state” solution will not work , because Hamas is Sunni aligned and the West Bank is Shia aligned . A “three state” solution for three separate land masses is achievable . If just the revenue from the Gaza off-shore oil was split three ways , all three countries would be wealthy. The Muslims and the rest of the world can clearly see the injustice to the native Palestinians . Peace is much more enjoyable than war .


Watch the video: Russian T-90 Main Battle Tank


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