History of the Syrian Civil War and Syrian refugees

History of the Syrian Civil War and Syrian refugees

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Every day we receive new information about the Syrian refugees, but we actually know what his story is?

The media show, we see continuous debates about them even in social networks and opposing positions in the population about whether or not to help them and how to do it.

To understand a little more one of the biggest problems of today and of all contemporary history, we must go back to the year 1963, when This humanitarian crisis was born, which was magnified as of 2011.

Recent history of Syria

Since 1963, the country has been governed uninterruptedly by the Ba'ath Party (Baath Arab Socialist Party), which was founded in 1947 and which assumed power after the 1963 coup in Syria, which was named by the Government as “March 8 Revolution”.

To understand this revolution, we must go to 1920 when the United Arab Kingdom emerged from Syria, ruled by King Faisal, born as an Arab kingdom not exclusively Syrian, defending Arab nationalism and pan-Islam.

Faced with this situation, after the First World War, the United Kingdom and France sealed an agreement by which the French Mandate was established in Syria and Lebanon, becoming a French colony with a feudal character and dependent on the semi-liberal oligarchy.

This caused a class society where 3,000 families owned half of all the land in Syria, 2 thirds of peasants did not own it, and the incomes from the rural world were completely unequal, where the richest 2% owned 50% of the rural income; the middle class that was equivalent to 18% of the population 25%, and 80% of the remaining population obtained 25% of the income that remained.

An ultimatum from the United Kingdom in 1946 ended the French mandate, resulting in the Syrian independence on April 17, 1946.

However, the elite that dominated and ruled the territory before independence, continued to do so, until they lost power after the defeat in the war against Israel in 1948, where the military began to increase its strength, generating a series of dictatorships in the following years.

It was in this social panorama that Baathism was born, offering itself as an integrating party where it would break with the castes and in which it was intended to integrate all the social classes of the country, deliberating in the following years how to come to power, if participating in elections, or arriving by assault.

This is how you get to March 8 Revolution, which was a military coup, although it had a character more similar to a popular revolt against the oligarchy, and from which several groups with different ideologies emerged that included pan-Islam, Arab nationalism and Syrian nationalism.

At that moment, the Ba'ath party assumes power and after a series of internal conflicts and struggles to gain control, coups, the 1967 Six Day War and the last confrontation called "Corrective Revolution”, General Hafez al-Assad seizes power in Syria on November 13, 1970, which he would hold until his death in 2000, being succeeded by his son Bashar al-Assad and who is in charge of the country at the moment.

The state of emergency in Syria

The state of emergency in Syria was activated in 1963, at which point the security forces began to control freedom of expression, arbitrary detentions were initiated, and hundreds of people were arrested for political or conscientious reasons.

The human rights defenders they were persecuted and members of the country's Kurdish minority faced unequaled discrimination.

This situation continued until 2008, when the situation began to worsen in the country until reaching the enormous humanitarian crisis of 2011.

The Syrian Civil War of 2011

The March 15, 2011 the Syrian Civil War began, which remains to this day, and which initially pitted the Syrian Armed Forces against rebel armed groups, known as the Syrian opposition.

Later, many of these rebels joined the Islamic State cause, conquering much of the territory of Syria and Iraq until 2017, when Syria launched a huge campaign against ISIS by taking back its territory.

But nevertheless, the protests that started in March 2011 as part of the Arab Spring and that they started the war that has not ended yet, it has many more ramifications and it is no longer just a confrontation between the Government and terrorists, but it has much broader and international connotations, where there is a great conflict of interests of foreign countries, including to the great powers.

Between the conflict participants We find the Syrian Government, the opposition with the Syrian National Council, the Kurds, Islamist groups, the United States, Europe, Turkey, Russia, the monarchies of the Middle East, Iran and Shiite groups such as Hezbollah.

All of them are part of a great network that is causing the largest humanitarian crisis since the Second World War, where Syria is the most affected country and where the most basic human rights are not met at all.

Syrian refugees

Nowadays, the number of Syrian refugees exceeds five million people, in a country where every day 6,000 people flee their country due to war, where more than 100,000 civilians have died, including 20,000 children and almost 15,000 women.

Turkey is the country that has received the most Syrian refugees so far, where more than 2,800,000 Syrians have been registered in the country, followed by Lebanon with more than 1 million registered (there are estimated to be 1,500,000) and Jordan with almost 650,000 registered (estimate, 1,265,000).

There's also hundreds of thousands of Syrian refugees registered in Germany, Serbia, Iraq, Egypt, Canada, Algeria, Sweden, Spain, Libya, Italy and other countries on all continents of the world.

This unsustainable situation causes the growth of requests for humanitarian aid both to help refugees fleeing the dangers of one of the bloodiest wars in recent years, and to help reestablish peace within their own country.

This is the situation in Syria today, which is still facing a bloody Civil War but whose causes we must analyze since the 20th century, although the apogee occurred from 2011.

After studying History at the University and after many previous tests, Red Historia was born, a project that emerged as a means of dissemination where you can find the most important news of archeology, history and humanities, as well as articles of interest, curiosities and much more. In short, a meeting point for everyone where they can share information and continue learning.

Video: Civil War in Syria - Syrian refugee journey in Europe