26 September 1941

26 September 1941

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26 September 1941

September 1941

> October

East Africa

Italians surrender at Wolchefit (Ethiopia)

Eastern Front

Winter weather ends fighting east of Kiev

Hitler orders a renewed offensive towards Moscow

Income inequality in America is the highest it’s been since Census Bureau started tracking it, data shows

Income inequality in the United States has hit its highest level since the Census Bureau started tracking it more than five decades ago, according to data released Thursday, even as the nation’s poverty and unemployment rates are at historic lows.

The gulf is starkest in wealthy regions along both coasts such as New York, Connecticut, California and Washington, D.C., as well as in areas with widespread poverty, such as Puerto Rico and Louisiana. Equality was highest in Utah, Alaska and Iowa.

And while the nation is in the midst of its longest economic expansion, nine states saw spikes in inequality from 2017 to 2018: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Kansas, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Texas and Virginia.

The Gini index measures wealth distribution across a population, with zero representing total equality and 1 representing total inequality, where all wealth is concentrated in a single household. The indicator has been rising steadily for several decades. When the Census Bureau began studying income inequality in 1967, the Gini index was 0.397. In 2018, it climbed to 0.485.

By comparison, no European nation had a score greater than 0.38 last year.

The federal minimum wage has stood at $7.25 for more than a decade. That’s one of the biggest reasons the gap between the rich and poor is widening, said Brielle Bryan, an assistant professor of sociology at Rice University.

“Inequality will go up as long as the people at the top of the tail are seeing their wealth increase,” Bryan said. “A booming economy means that people who have higher income and own capital are able to see continued higher returns on that.”

Recent economic gains by lower-income workers who have found jobs and benefited from minimum-wage increases in many states haven’t made up for the long-running trend of the wealthy seeing far larger income growth than middle- or lower-income earners. The number of families earning $15,000 or less has fallen since 2007, according to the latest census data, while the number of households bringing in $250,000 a year or more has grown more than 15 percent.

Though the gap between the richest and poorest expanded, the nation’s median household income topped $63,000 for the first time. However, after adjusting for inflation, it’s roughly the same as it was 20 years ago.

26 September 1941 - History

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is the second largest organization after the United Nations with a membership of 57 states spread over four continents. The Organization is the collective voice of the Muslim world. It endeavors to safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony among various people of the world.

The Organization was established upon a decision of the historical summit which took place in Rabat, Kingdom of Morocco on 12th Rajab 1389 Hijra (25 September 1969) following the criminal arson of Al-Aqsa Mosque in occupied Jerusalem.

In 1970 the first ever meeting of Islamic Conference of Foreign Minister (ICFM) was held in Jeddah which decided to establish a permanent secretariat in Jeddah headed by the organization’s secretary general. Dr. Yousef Ahmed Al-Othaimeen is the 11th Secretary General who assumed the office in November 2016.

The first OIC Charter was adopted by the 3rd ICFM Session held in 1972. The Charter laid down the objectives and principles of the organization and fundamental purposes to strengthen the solidarity and cooperation among the Member States. Over the last 40 years, the membership has grown from its founding members of 30 to 57 states. The Charter was amended to keep pace with the developments that have unraveled across the world. The present Charter of the OIC was adopted by the Eleventh Islamic Summit held in Dakar on 13-14 March 2008 to become the pillar of the OIC future Islamic action in line with the requirements of the 21st century.

The Organization has the singular honor to galvanize the Ummah into a unified body and have actively represented the Muslims by espousing all causes close to the hearts of over 1.5 billion Muslims of the world. The Organization has consultative and cooperative relations with the UN and other inter-governmental organizations to protect the vital interests of the Muslims and to work for the settlement of conflicts and disputes involving Member States. In safeguarding the true values of Islam and the Muslims, the organization has taken various steps to remove misperceptions and has strongly advocated elimination of discrimination against Muslims in all forms and manifestations.

The Member States of the OIC face many challenges in the 21st century and to address those challenges, the Third Extraordinary Session of the Islamic Summit held in Makkah in December 2005, laid down the blue print called the Ten-Year Program of Action. It successfully concluded with the close of 2015. A successor programme for the next decade (2016-2025) has since then been adopted.

The new programme OIC-2025 is anchored in the provisions of the OIC Charter and focuses on 18 priority areas with 107 goals. The priority areas include issues of Peace and Security, Palestine and Al-Quds, Poverty Alleviation, Counter-terrorism, Investment and Finance, Food Security, Science and Technology, Climate Change and Sustainability, Moderation, Culture and Interfaith Harmony, Empowerment of Women, Joint Islamic Humanitarian Action, Human Rights and Good Governance, among others.

Among the OIC’s key bodies: the Islamic Summit, the Council of Foreign Ministers (CFM), the General Secretariat, in addition to the Al-Quds Committee and three permanent committees concerned with science and technology, economy and trade, and information and culture. There are also specialized organs under the banner of the OIC including the Islamic Development Bank and the Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, as well as subsidiary and affiliate organs that play a vital role in boosting cooperation in various fields among the OIC member states.

26 September 1941 - History

Sixteen Division Soldiers Die in Artillery Accident
- V Corps Unit Faulted -

Accident involved 8-inch howitzer of the type shown above. - PIO file photo

Accidents in an actual shooting war, as well as a Cold War, are inevitable. This one, however, stands out as apparently the worst U.S. ground training accident of the entire Cold War. Just after roll-call, on a rainy Friday morning on September 2, 1960, sixteen solders were killed and 27 were wounded when a 200-pound artillery shell landed amongst them at Camp Kasserine, Grafenwoehr. All of the men were from the 3rd Reconnaissance Squadron, 12th Calvary, 3rd Armored Division. The shell, which had an incorrect charge due to human error, was fired by a V Corps Artillery unit -- Battery A, 3rd Battalion, 18th Field Artillery.

From various news services, with the original headlines
and in chronological order:


Howitzer, Fired in Training, Hits Bavaria Tent Area

The New York Times (front-page story on Sept. 3, 1960)

Bonn, Germany, Sept. 2 , 1960 - Fifteen United States soldiers were killed and twenty-eight were injured this morning when an eight-inch artillery shell exploded at the Grafenwoehr training ground in Bavaria.

The headquarters of the United States Army in Europe announced in Heidelberg that a howitzer shell, fired during a training exercise of the Third Armored Division, had veered from the planned target area. It exploded in the tent camp of a reconnaissance squadron, the announcement said.

Maj. Gen. Frederic J. Brown, commander of the division, stationed in Frankfurt, ordered an immediate investigation. The seriously wounded victims were flown to Army hospitals by helicopter.

The training ground, about ninety miles square, is near the Czech border north of Nuremberg. It is used for maneuvers and firing practice by West German and American soldiers.

"Human Error" Cited in Deaths
of U.S. Soldiers in West Germany
United Press International

Heidelberg, Germany, September 2, 1960 - The shell that killed fifteen United States soldiers overshot its target by a mile because the powder charge was heavy, the Army said today.

Maj. General Frederic J. Brown, Third Armored Division commander, attributed the accident to an overfire from "human error" by Battery A of the Eighteenth Artillery under control of the Fifth Corps, stationed at Darmstadt.

The shell struck just after roll-call on a rainy morning. It tore into three tents occupied by soldiers of the division's Third Reconnaissance Squadron, Twelfth Cavalry. It ripped through one tent, exploded in the second and shredded in the third with steel fragments.

The Army said two of the injured remained on the critical list, while three had returned to duty.

The incident was the worst ground-training accident involving United States forces in Germany since World War II. In August, 1955, two C-119's on an air exercise collided, killing more than sixty soldiers.

The eight-inch howitzer can fire nuclear warheads. A conventional shell, the type that went awry today, and weighs 200 pounds, of which about 36.75 pounds is high explosive. The weapon weighs 94,000 pounds. It has a maximum range of 18,510 yards, just over ten miles.

Howitzer shells follow a high trajectory from a weapon to target, as contrasted with the flatter flight from a gun, which has a rifled barrel.

The Associated Press

Grafenwoehr, Germany, Sept. 4, 1960 - Three thousand United States soldiers paid homage today at a simple memorial ceremony to sixteen comrades, victims of a training accident Friday.

Soldiers of the Third Armored Division assembled in a hollow -- with 16 gaps in the ranks -- before an altar between two fir trees.

Sixteen steel helmets on tables near the altar bore testimony to the accident that killed fifteen men outright and wounded twenty-seven when an overcharged 8-inch howitzer shell overshot an artillery range and landed in a tent camp. One of the injured soldiers died yesterday. The army is investigating the accident.

Service in World War II [ edit | edit source ]

Campaign in the West [ edit | edit source ]

JG 26 took part in the Battle of France from 10 May 1940 onwards, flying the Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighter. To help with identification the unit had the undernoses of their aircraft painted yellow. Some aircraft had their entire cowling thus painted. Ώ] JG 26 claimed 160 French and British aircraft shot down, for relatively light losses of 17 pilots killed. ΐ] After the fall of France JG 26 took part in the Battle of Britain, located in the Pas de Calais region. In late August it was becoming apparent to the German High Command that the Battle of Britain was not going as planned. A frustrated Göring relieved several Geschwaderkommodore of their commands, and appointed younger, more aggressive men in their place. Α] Thus Major Adolf Galland was given command of JG 26 on 22 August 1940. During the Battle of Britain, the Geschwader claimed 285 fighters shot down, for losses of 76 aircraft and 45 pilots killed, and 29 prisoners of war. ΐ] In 1941 most of the fighter units of the Luftwaffe were sent east to the Eastern Front, or south to the Mediterranean Theater of Operations, thus leaving JG 26 and Jagdgeschwader 2 Richthofen as the sole single-engine fighter Geschwader in France. For the next two years these two Geschwader were the main adversaries to the Royal Air Force's (RAF) day offensives over Occupied Europe. The two Jagdgeschwader maintained around 120 serviceable Bf 109 E and F’s to face the increasing number of aggressive RAF Fighter Command sweeps conducted to wear down the Luftwaffe in a war of attrition and so relieve pressure on the Eastern Front.

Galland's careful husbanding of his resources and astute tactical awareness meant JG 26 kept their losses to a minimum while inflicting maximum damage on the RAF's Spitfires through 1941. This became even more evident with the arrival of the potent Focke-Wulf Fw 190A to units in late 1941 - early 1942, which, in most cases, outclassed the current Spitfire Mark Vb in service with the RAF. In late 1941 JG 26 started converting to the Fw 190A fighter. I. and II. Gruppe were soon fully equipped with this aircraft, and although the III Gruppe started converting, the process was stopped and it continued using various versions of the Bf 109 for the remainder of the war. By the end of 1941 JG 26 had claimed more than 900 victories since September 1939 (some 400 since May 1941), and had lost some 95 pilots killed (34 POW) in return. The highest scoring pilots at this time were Galland (97), Hptm Müncheberg (62) and Hptm Josef Priller (58). [ citation needed ]

JG 26 and Jagdgeschwader 2 (JG 2) had to defend the entire Atlantic Wall from the Spanish border through Belgium, until late 1942 when more units were directed West after the Allied bombing campaigns increased in ferocity.

The Abbeville boys [ edit | edit source ]

Although JG 26 was not known by specific name to their opponents, JG 26 built a fearsome reputation among Allied aircrews. Ώ] The skill and determination of the Luftwaffe fighter units when attacking United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) bomber formations led the Allied bomber crews to become wary whenever any yellow-nosed Bf 109 or Fw 190 aircraft attacked them. Because some elements of the unit was located in Abbeville-Drucat the Allies dubbed any yellow-nosed Bf 109 or Fw 190 aircraft who aggressively and effectively attacked them the nickname The Abbeville Boys and perceived them as the Luftwaffe's special hand-picked elite group of aces, although from the Luftwaffe's perspective they were just another — albeit highly experienced and effective — fighter Geschwader.

Mediterranean (1941) [ edit | edit source ]

In February 1941, 7./JG 26 [Notes 1] under Hpt Joachim Müncheberg operated in the Mediterranean theatre against Malta from bases in Sicily. The unit was to achieve success out of all proportion to its moderate size, claiming 52 victories over the island's defenders without losing a single Bf-109E. Müncheberg claimed almost half of the victories. In addition to flying missions over Malta, 7. JG 26 also flew over Yugoslavia in support of the German invasion of the Balkans. On 7 May 1941, Müncheberg was awarded the Eichenlaub to his Ritterkreuz and the Italian Medaglia d'Oro, with 43 victories to his credit. After a spell in Libya during June–July 1941 to support Rommels Afrika Korps, 7./JG 26 was transferred back to France.

Dieppe (1942) [ edit | edit source ]

The ill-fated Allied landing at Dieppe on 19 August 1942 was intended as a reconnaissance in force to learn the techniques required to breach the Atlantic Wall along the French coast. The air operations in conjunction with Operation Jubilee resulted in some of the fiercest and intensive air battles since 1940. The RAF’s objectives were to throw a protective umbrella over the Naval and Army forces involved and to force the Luftwaffe fighters into an attritional conflict on the Allies’ own terms. Fifty one fighter squadrons of Spitfires and Typhoons were committed, with 8 squadrons of Hurricane fighter-bombers, 4 squadrons of reconnaissance Mustang Mk I’s and 7 squadrons of light bombers. Opposing were the 115 operational fighters of Jagdgeschwader JG 2 and JG 26. The German fighters were therefore outnumbered by about three to one. Although initially slow to respond to the raid, the German fighters soon made their presence felt over the port as the day wore on. While the Allied fighters were moderately successful in protecting the ground and sea forces from aerial bombing, the RAF came off second best versus the experienced and well-equipped Jagdgeschwaders.

While Fighter Command claimed to have inflicted heavy casualties on the Luftwaffe the balance sheet showed the reverse Allied aircraft losses amounted to 106, including 88 RAF fighters (of which 70 Spitfires were lost to all causes Β] ) and 18 bombers, against 48 Luftwaffe aircraft lost. Included in that total were 28 bombers, half of them Dornier Do 217s from KG 2. One of the two Jagdgeschwader's, JG 2, lost 14 Fw 190s and eight pilots killed. JG 26 lost six Fw 190s with their pilots. Γ] The Spitfire Squadrons (42 with Mark Vs, and four with Mark IXs) were tasked with ground attack, escort and air-superiority missions, Δ] so the exact number of Spitfire losses to the Fw 190 is unknown. The Luftwaffe claimed 61 of the 106 RAF machines lost, which included all types (JG 2 claimed 40 and JG 26 claimed 21 kills). Γ]

Jabos [ edit | edit source ]

At the end of March 1942, a specialist fighter bomber Staffel was created 10.(Jabo)/JG 26. Equipped with the Fw 190 A-3/U3 along with sister unit 10.(Jabo)/JG 2 the staffel operated from June onwards against channel shipping and port towns on the south-eastern coasts of England. Often operating in small numbers at high speed and low altitude, these pin-prick raids were almost impossible for the RAF fighters to defend against. On 31 October 1942 Canterbury was attacked in the largest daylight raid mounted by the Luftwaffe since the Battle of Britain, with some 60 Fw 190s attacking the city, killing 32 and injuring 116 (one Fw 190 was lost). The most effective counter to these attacks were wasteful standing patrols by the Hawker Typhoon and the Griffon engined Spitfire Mk XII, which were both fast enough at low level to catch the Fw 190. As 1943 progressed however the Jabo units were suffering ever higher losses. For example, in the London raid of 20 January 1943, JG 26 jabos and their escorts (some 90 fighters in all) lost eight aircraft and pilots to the RAF.

In February 1943, 10.(Jabo)/JG 26 became 10.(Jabo)/JG 54, but continued to operate under the control of JG 26. In April these Jabo units were amalgamated into IV gruppe, Schnellkampfgeschwader 10 (SKG 10) and switched to night operations over southern England.

A New Enemy and service in Russia (1943) [ edit | edit source ]

The dawn of 1943 saw the period of the RAF's massive circus operations pass, with the 'Schlageter' Geschwader increasingly involved in operations against a new enemy, in the form of the increasingly intensive daylight heavy bomber operations of the USAAF Eighth Air Force.

The bomber formations were initially the bait with which to lure the Luftwaffe fighters into combat, although the bombers also now had the capability to destroy or severely damage their ground targets. No longer would JG 26 have the luxury of picking and choosing the time and place of combat. The unit's FW 190's performance fell off rapidly above 25,000 feet, and thus massed head-on attacks were developed to maximise the fighter's firepower and to exploit both the B-17E and F model Flying Fortresses', and B-24D Liberators' weaknesses in forward-facing armament, a defeciency partly corrected in late-model production versions of both heavy bombers.

Meanwhile JG 26 were notified that they were to be posted to the Eastern Front, replacing JG 54 Grünherz who were to transfer west. The changeover was to be by Gruppe strength, and I./JG 26 (under Major Johannes Seifert) and 7./JG 26 (Hpt. Klaus Mietusch) moved into Northern Russia in late January 1943. However, during the spring of 1943 the planned phased transfer was postponed, and by early June I./JG 26 was back in France, as was 7./JG 26 in July. Some 199 Soviet Air Force aircraft had been claimed shot down, for just 11 pilots killed.

D-Day and beyond (1944) [ edit | edit source ]

Jagdgeschwader 26's first operations during the Normandy invasion on 6 June 1944 was conducted by Geschwaderkommodore Obstlt. Josef Priller, flying an Fw 190A-8 W.Nr.170346 Black 13, and his wingman from his airfield at Lille-Nord an event that would be portrayed graphically in the book by Cornelius Ryan and the resultant film The Longest Day. Priller and his wingman, Uffz. Heinz Wodarczyk, took off in their Focke-Wulfs and headed west at low altitude, dodging several formations of Spitfires in the process. Crossing the coast at Le Havre the duo spotted the ships of the assault force. The pair made a high speed strafing pass over what was the British Sword Beach. Anti-aircraft fire forced the unscathed Focke-Wulfs to seek cloud cover. JG 26 (with JG 2) flew the bulk of the 172 sorties by the Luftwaffe Fighter arm on D-Day. By contrast the Allies Air Forces flew 14,000 sorties the same day.

The Luftwaffe's fighters were mobilised as part of a long-standing plan in the event of an invasion to reinforce the French based units of JG 2 and JG 26 with home-located Reich Defence gruppen. Alongside these some 20 gruppen from the newly arrived Jagdgeschwaders under the command of Jagd Division 5, JG 26 would fly intensively over the invasion battlefield during the summer of 1944, flying sweeps against the ever present hordes of Allied fighter-bombers. Inevitably the overwhelming Allied air superiority inflicted heavy losses on pilots and planes. By late summer few of the battle-hardened JG 26 experten of earlier years remained with the Geschwader, with novice recruits of less than 180 hours flying experience drafted in. JG 26 claimed just 30 kills in July, and suffered 20 pilots killed and 16 injured.

By late August the Geschwader was stationed in Belgium, mustering just 56 aircraft. JG 26 claimed 76 kills for the month, with 40 pilots killed in action (their highest monthly loss of the war), 6 killed in accidents, and 20 injured.

The Geschwader, located close to the Dutch border, was heavily involved in operations against Operation Market Garden, the airborne offensive around the Rhine bridges. Efforts to disrupt the transport aircraft were thwarted by the numerous Allied fighter patrols. Major Klaus Mietusch, the 72-kill ace commander of III/JG 26, and the longest serving member of the Geschwader (since 1938), was killed in combat at this time.

In November 1944 II Gruppe withdrew to re-equip with the improved FW 190 D-9 the 'Dora'.

1945 [ edit | edit source ]

JG 26 took part in Operation Bodenplatte, the low-level massed fighter attacks on the Allied air bases in the Low Countries. Led by Oberst Priller. over 60 FW 190D's of I/JG 26 and the subordinated III/JG 54 attacked the RAF airfield at Grimbergen, destroying 5 bombers and a Mustang, along with various trucks and equipment. However, 24 aircraft failed to return, over half falling to German friendly fire. II. and III./JG 26 meantime attacked Brussels - Evere the home of the RCAF's crack No 127 Wing, flying Spitfires. Just 11 Spitfires were destroyed, the attackers losing 17 aircraft. JG 26's losses were indicative of the Luftwaffe's casualties that day, with some 300 of the 900 fighters involved failing to return safely. The operation marked the end of the Luftwaffe's hopes for effective and concerted operations against the Allies in the future.

JG 26's task for the rest of the war was to provide what support it could for the German Armies defending the Northern sector of the Western Front against the thrusts of the Canadian and British Armies. Despite chronic shortages of fuel and equipment, the unit flew intercept sorties against Allied reconnaissance aircraft and 'freie Jagd' against the ground-attack and tactical formations.

Exclusive: $1 billion-plus riot damage is most expensive in insurance history

The vandalism and looting following the death of George Floyd at the hands of the Minneapolis police will cost the insurance industry more than any other violent demonstrations in recent history, Axios has learned.

Why it matters: The protests that took place in 140 U.S. cities this spring were mostly peaceful, but the arson, vandalism and looting that did occur will result in at least $1 billion to $2 billion of paid insurance claims — eclipsing the record set in Los Angeles in 1992 after the acquittal of the police officers who brutalized Rodney King.

How it works: A company called Property Claim Services (PCS) has tracked insurance claims related to civil disorder since 1950. It classifies anything over $25 million in insured losses as a "catastrophe," and reports that the unrest this year (from May 26 to June 8) will cost the insurance industry far more than any prior one.

  • That number could be as much as $2 billion and possibly more, according to the Insurance Information Institute (or Triple-I), which compiles information from PCS as well as other firms that report such statistics.
  • The protests related to George Floyd's death are also different because they are so widespread. "It's not just happening in one city or state — it's all over the country," Loretta L. Worters of the Triple-I tells Axios.
  • "And this is still happening, so the losses could be significantly more."

Yes, but: These losses are small compared with those stemming from natural disasters like hurricanes and the wildfires that are consuming the U.S. West.

  • Hurricane Isaias will cost $3 billion-$5 billion in insurance losses, per Risk Management Solutions (RMS).
  • The wildfire season has just begun this year, but already insured losses are at $1.5 billion, Triple-I tells Axios. That compares with $18 billion for all of 2018 and $15 billion for all of 2017 (the 2019 numbers aren't available yet).
  • "In California alone, wildfires have already burned 2.2 million acres in 2020 — more than any year on record. And the 2020 wildfire season still has a way to go," says Worters of Triple-I.

Between the lines: PCS, a unit of Verisk Analytics, won't reveal an exact dollar figure from this year's violence because it wants to sell that data to clients. But it says the insured losses far outstrip the prior record of $775 million from the 1992 Rodney King demonstrations.

  • All previous catastrophes — as classified by the insurance industry — happened in a particular city. This was the first that happened not just in multiple cities, but in 20 states.
  • "Not only is this the first, this is the first — kind of with a cymbal crash," Tom Johansmeyer, head of PCS, tells Axios.

The backstory: The last time PCS compiled insurance losses for a "civil disorder event" was in April 2015, when rioting erupted in Baltimore in the wake of the death of Freddie Gray from a neck injury while being transported in a police van.

  • "Those riots did not result in insured losses reaching $25 million when it occurred, PCS’s threshold for a catastrophe," according to an article on the Insurance Information Institute's website that catalogs insured losses of this magnitude. (It shows that most of the biggest episodes happened in the 1960s).
  • "For the first time, PCS has designated this civil disorder and those that followed across the United States from May 26 to June 8 as a multi-state catastrophe event."
  • Also on the top 10 list: The 1965 Watts riots in Los Angeles the 1967 Detroit riot that inspired the Gordon Lightfoot song "Black Day in July" and the great New York City blackout of 1977.

Of note: While U.S. companies have learned the hard way that their insurance doesn't cover business interruption related to the coronavirus, most policies emphatically do cover riot-related losses.

What to watch: The insurance industry is rolling up its sleeves in anticipation of potential unrest following the November election.

Development Timeline for Stelara

Jul 30, 2020 Approval FDA Approves Stelara (ustekinumab) for Treatment of Pediatric Patients with Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis
Oct 21, 2019 Approval Janssen Announces FDA Approval of Stelara (ustekinumab) for the Treatment of Adults with Moderately to Severely Active Ulcerative Colitis
Oct 13, 2017 Approval Janssen Announces FDA Approval of Stelara (ustekinumab) for the Treatment of Adolescents with Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis
Sep 26, 2016 Approval FDA Approves Stelara (ustekinumab) for Treatment of Adults with Moderately to Severely Active Crohn's Disease
Sep 23, 2013 Approval Stelara (ustekinumab) Receives FDA Approval to Treat Active Psoriatic Arthritis
Sep 25, 2009 Approval FDA Approves Stelara (ustekinumab) to Treat Psoriasis
May 27, 2009FDA Extends Review Timeline for Stelara (ustekinumab) Biologic License Application by Three Months
Dec 19, 2008FDA Issues Complete Response Letter to Centocor for Ustekinumab Biologic License Application
Aug 8, 2008FDA Extends Review Timeline for Ustekinumab Biologic License Application Three Months
Jun 18, 2008FDA Advisory Committee Unanimously Recommends Approval of Ustekinumab for Treatment of Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis
Feb 4, 2008Centocor Announces Ustekinumab Biologic License Application Accepted for Filing by FDA
Dec 7, 2007Medarex to Receive Milestone Payment for Submission of Regulatory Applications Requesting Approval of Ustekinumab (CNTO 1275) for Treatment of Psoriasis
Dec 4, 2007Centocor and Janssen-Cilag Submit Applications Requesting Approval of Ustekinumab in the U.S. and Europe for Treatment of Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis

2008 Debates

There were three presidential debates and one vice presidential debate during the 2008 general election.

Courtesy Mark Abraham

General Election Presidential Debate

John McCain (R), United States Senator (AZ) and
Barack Obama (D), United States Senator (IL)

The University of Mississippi

Commission on Presidential Debates

Foreign Policy and National Security

52.4 million (Data provided by Nielsen Media Research)

90-minute debate with candidates standing at podiums. Candidates questioned in turn with two-minute responses, followed by five minutes of open discussion between moderator and candidates for each question.

Pool coverage provided by: CBS

Vice Presidential Debate

Joe Biden (D), United States Senator (DE) and
Sarah Palin (R), Governor (AK)

Washington University in St. Louis

Commission on Presidential Debates

69.9 million (Data provided by Nielsen Media Research)

90-minute debate with candidates standing at podiums. Candidates questioned in turn with 90-second responses, followed by two minutes of open discussion for each question. Ninety second closing statements.

Pool coverage provided by: CNN

General Election Presidential Debate

John McCain (R), United States Senator (AZ) and
Barack Obama (D), United States Senator (IL)

Commission on Presidential Debates

63.2 million (Data provided by Nielsen Media Research)

90-minute town hall meeting debate. Candidates questioned by uncommitted voters identified by the Gallup Organization. In addition, moderator has discretion to include questions submitted online. Candidates questioned in turn with two-minute responses, followed by one-minute open discussion for each question.

Pool coverage provided by: CBS

General Election Presidential Debate

John McCain (R), United States Senator (AZ) and
Barack Obama (D), United States Senator (IL)

June 20, 1942 – Auschwitz prisoners steal uniforms, guns and a car to escape

On this day in 1942 four prisoners of the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz staged a daring escape utilizing a stolen SS member’s personal vehicle, a Steyr 220 sedan, to drive right out the front gate. The escapees were three Polish prisoners, Kazimierz Piechowski, Stanisław Gustaw Jaster and Józef Lempart,

Institute of Railway Studies

&zwnjAs we continue to take forward the long-standing collaboration between the National Railway Museum (NRM) and the University of York, we are pleased to welcome you to our newly-launched website. This will become the hub for our collective activities, and serve to reinforce the important, valuable and special relationship between the two organisations.

With a commitment to furthering scholarly activity within the sphere of railway history, we look forward to sharing with you the fruits of our partnership for many years to come.